Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl)

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Everything you need to perform, with a built-in MP3 player. View more products. Johnson eventually improved it.

Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" trademark for legal reasons, in Johnson's and Berliner's separate companies reorganized to form the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jerseywhose products would come to dominate the market for many years.

Ininch disc records were introduced, followed in by inch records. These could play for more than three and four minutes, respectively, whereas contemporary cylinders could only play for about two minutes. Despite these improvements, during the s discs decisively won this early format waralthough Edison continued to produce new Blue Amberol cylinders for an ever-dwindling customer base until late in Bythe basic patents for the manufacture of lateral-cut disc records had expired, opening the field for countless companies to produce them.

Analog disc records dominated the home entertainment market throughout the 20th century until they were outsold by digital compact discs in the s, which were in turn supplanted by digital audio recordings distributed via online music stores and Internet file sharing. Early disc recordings were produced in a variety of speeds ranging from 60 to rpm, and a variety of sizes. As early asEmile Berliner 's United States Gramophone Company was selling single-sided 7-inch discs with an advertised standard speed of "about 70 rpm".

One standard audio recording handbook describes speed regulators, or governorsas being part of a wave of improvement introduced rapidly after A picture of a hand-cranked Berliner Gramophone shows a governor, and says that spring drives had replaced hand drives. It notes that:. The speed regulator was furnished with an indicator that showed the speed when the machine was running so that the records, on reproduction, could be revolved at exactly the same speed The literature does not disclose why 78 rpm was chosen for the phonograph industry, apparently this just happened to be the speed created by one of the early machines and, for no other reason continued to be used.

Inthe Grammophone Company set 78 rpm as their recording standard, based on the average of recordings they had been releasing at Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl) time, and started selling players whose governors had a nominal speed of 78 rpm. However, the exact speed differed between places with alternating current electricity supply at 60 hertz cycles per second, Hz and those at 50 Hz.

Where the mains supply was 60 Hz, the actual speed was Where it was 50 Hz, it was Early recordings were made entirely acoustically, the sound being collected by a horn and piped to a diaphragmwhich vibrated the cutting stylus. Sensitivity and frequency range were poor, and frequency response was very irregular, giving acoustic recordings an instantly recognizable tonal quality.

A singer almost had to put his or her face in the recording horn. A way of reducing resonance was to wrap the recording horn with tape.

Lower-pitched orchestral instruments such as cellos and double basses were often doubled or replaced by louder instruments, such as tubas. Standard violins in orchestral ensembles were commonly replaced by Stroh violinswhich became popular with recording studios. Even drums, if planned and placed properly, could be effectively recorded and heard on even the earliest jazz and military band recordings. The loudest instruments such as the drums and trumpets were positioned the farthest away from the collecting horn.

Lillian Hardin Armstronga member of King Oliver's Creole Jazz Bandwhich recorded at Gennett Records inremembered that at first Oliver and his young second trumpet, Louis Armstrongstood next to each other and Oliver's horn could not be heard. During the first half of the s, engineers at Western Electricas well as independent inventors such as Orlando Marshdeveloped technology for capturing sound with a microphoneamplifying it with vacuum tubesthen using the amplified signal to drive an electromechanical recording head.

Western Electric's innovations resulted in a broader and smoother frequency response, which produced a dramatically fuller, clearer and more natural-sounding recording. Soft or distant sounds that were previously impossible to record could now be captured. Volume was now limited only by the groove spacing on the record and the amplification of the playback device. Victor and Columbia licensed the new electrical system from Western Electric and recorded the first electrical discs during the Spring of To claim that the records have succeeded in exact and complete reproduction of all details of symphonic or operatic performances Electrical recording and reproduction have combined to retain vitality and color in recitals by proxy.

Electrically amplified record players were initially expensive and slow to be adopted. Inthe Victor company introduced Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl) the Orthophonic Victrolaan acoustical record player that was designed to play the new electrically recorded discs, and the electrically amplified Electrola. The Orthophonic Victrola had an interior folded exponential horn, a sophisticated design informed by impedance-matching and transmission-line theory, and designed to provide a relatively flat frequency response.

Its first public demonstration was front-page news in The New York Timeswhich reported:. The audience broke into applause John Philip Sousa [said]: '[Gentlemen], that is a band. This is the first time I have ever heard music with any soul to it produced by a mechanical talking machine' The new instrument is a feat of mathematics and physics. It is not the result of innumerable experiments, but was worked out on paper in advance of being built in the laboratory The new machine has a range of from to 5, [cycles per second], or five and a half octaves The 'phonograph tone' is eliminated by the new recording and reproducing process.

Gradually, electrical reproduction entered the home. The spring motor was replaced by an electric motor. The old sound box with its needle-linked diaphragm was replaced by an electromagnetic pickup that converted the needle vibrations into an electrical signal. The tone arm now served to conduct a pair of wires, not sound waves, into the cabinet. The exponential horn was replaced by an amplifier and a loudspeaker. Sales of records plummeted precipitously during the early years of the Great Depression of the s, and the entire record industry in America nearly foundered.

According to Edward Wallerstein the general manager of the RCA Victor Divisionthis device was "instrumental in revitalizing the industry". The earliest disc records — were made of a variety of materials, including hard rubber. Arounda shellac -based material was introduced and became standard.

Formulas for the mixture varied by manufacturer over time, but it was typically about one-third shellac and two-thirds mineral filler finely pulverized slate or limestonewith cotton fibers to add tensile strength, carbon black for color without which it tended to be an unattractive "dirty" gray or brown colorand a very small amount of a lubricant to facilitate release from the manufacturing press.

Columbia Records used a laminated disc with a core of coarser material or fiber. The production of shellac records continued throughout the 78 rpm era, which lasted until the s in industrialized nations, but well into the s in others.

Less abrasive formulations were developed during its waning years and very late examples in like-new condition can have noise levels as low as vinyl. Flexible, "unbreakable" alternatives to shellac were introduced by several manufacturers during the 78 rpm era.

Beginning inNicole Records of the UK coated celluloid or a similar substance onto a cardboard core disc for a few years, but they were noisy.

In the United States, Columbia Records introduced flexible, fiber-cored "Marconi Velvet Tone Record" pressings inbut their longevity and relatively quiet surfaces depended on the use of special gold-plated Marconi Needles and the product was not successful.

Thin, flexible plastic records such as the German Phonycord and the British Filmophone and Goodson records appeared aroundbut not for long. In the United States, Hit of the Week records were introduced in early They were made of a patented translucent plastic called Durium coated on a heavy brown paper base. A new issue debuted weekly and were sold at newsstands like a magazine. Although inexpensive and commercially successful at first, they fell victim to the Great Depression and U.

Durium records continued to be made in the UK and as late as in Italy, where the name "Durium" survived into the LP era as a brand of vinyl records.

Despite these innovations, shellac continued to be used for the overwhelming majority of commercial 78 rpm records throughout the format's lifetime. InRCA Victor introduced vinyl plastic-based Victrolac as a material for unusual-format and special-purpose records. InRCA began using Victrolac in a home recording system. By the end of the s vinyl's light weight, strength, and low surface noise had made it the preferred material for prerecorded radio programming and other critical applications.

For ordinary 78 rpm records, however, the much higher cost of the synthetic plastic, as well as its vulnerability to the heavy pickups and mass-produced steel needles used in home record players, made its general substitution for shellac impractical at that time. Later, Decca Records introduced vinyl Deccalite 78s, while other record companies used vinyl formulations trademarked as Metrolite, Merco Plastic, and Sav-o-flex, but these were mainly used to produce "unbreakable" children's records and special thin vinyl DJ pressings for shipment to radio stations.

In the s, the diameter of the earliest toy discs was generally By the mids, discs were usually 7 inches nominally Bythe inch 25 cm record was by far the most popular standard, containing about three minutes of music or other entertainment on one side. From onwards, inch 30 cm records were produced, mostly featuring classical music or operatic selections, with four to five minutes of music per side. VictorBrunswick and Columbia also issued inch popular medleys, usually spotlighting a Broadway show score.

An 8-inch 20 cm disc with a 2-inch 50 mm -diameter label became popular between and about [29] in Britain, but those records cannot be played in full on most modern record players, because tonearms cannot track far enough toward the center of the record without modifying the equipment. InVictor offered a series of inch 36 cm "Deluxe Special" records, which played at 60 rpm and sold for two dollars.

Fewer than fifty titles were issued, and the series was dropped indue to poor sales. Also ina short-lived British firm called Neophone marketed a series of single-sided inch 50 cm records, offering complete performances of some operatic overtures and shorter pieces. The playing time of a phonograph record depends on the available groove length divided by the turntable speed.

Total groove length in turn depends on how closely the grooves are spaced, in addition to the record diameter. At the beginning of the 20th century, the early discs played for two minutes, the same as cylinder records. In JanuaryMilt Gabler started recording for Commodore Recordsand to allow for longer continuous performances, he recorded some inch discs.

Eddie Condon explained: "Gabler realized that a jam session needs room for development. But at the second session, on April 30, the two inch recordings were longer: "Embraceable You" was 4m 05s; "Serenade to a Shylock", 4m 32s.

Vaudeville stars Gallagher and Shean recorded "Mr. Gallagher and Mr. Shean", written by themselves or, allegedly, by Bryan Foy, as two sides of a inch 78 in for Victor.

The limited duration of recordings persisted from their advent until the introduction of the LP record in Because it ran 7m 57s, longer than both sides of a standard 78 rpm inch record, it was released on Columbia 's Masterwork label the classical division as two sides of a inch record.

In the 78 era, classical-music and spoken-word items generally were released on the longer inch 78s, about 4—5 minutes per side. For example, on June 10,four months after the February 12 premier of Rhapsody in BlueGeorge Gershwin recorded an abridged Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl) of the seventeen-minute work with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra.

It was released on two sides of Victor and ran for 8m 59s. Generally the sleeves had a circular cut-out exposing the record label to view. Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood on an edge, but because of their fragility, breakage was common. German record company Odeon pioneered the album in when it released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package. The practice of issuing albums was not adopted by other record companies for many years.

By about[note 1] bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records the term "record album" was printed on some covers. These albums came in both inch and inch sizes.

The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums, typically with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover.

Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight tunes per album. When the inch vinyl LP era began ineach disc could hold a number of tunes similar to that of a typical album of 78s, so they were still referred to as an "album", as they are today. For collectible or nostalgia purposes, or for the benefit of higher-quality audio playback provided by the 78 rpm speed with newer vinyl records and their lightweight stylus pickups, a small number of 78 rpm records have been released since the major labels ceased production.

One attempt at this was inwhen inventor Ewing Dunbar Nunn founded the label Audiophile Recordswhich released a series of 78 rpm-mastered albums that were microgroove and pressed on vinyl as opposed to traditional 78s, with their shellac composition and wider 3-mil sized grooves. This series came in heavy manilla envelopes and began with a jazz album AP-1 and was soon followed by other AP numbers up through about AP The Audiophile numbers can be found into the hundreds today but the most collectable ones are the early 78 rpm releases, especially the first, AP The 78 rpm speed was mainly to take advantage of the wider audio frequency response that faster speeds like 78 rpm can provide for vinyl microgroove records, hence the label's name obviously catering to the audiophiles of the s "hi-fi" era, when stereo gear could provide a much wider range of audio than before.

Also aroundBell Records released a series of budget-priced plastic 7-inch 78 rpm pop music singles. InReprise planned to release a series of 78 rpm singles from their artists on their label at the time, called the Reprise Speed Series. Underground comic cartoonist and 78 rpm record collector Robert Crumb released three vinyl 78s by his Cheap Suit Serenaders in the s.

In the s Rhino Records issued a series of boxed sets of 78 rpm reissues of early rock and roll hits, intended for owners of vintage jukeboxes. The records were made of Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl), however, and some of the earlier vintage 78 rpm jukeboxes and record players the ones that were pre-war were designed with heavy tone arms to play the hard slate-impregnated shellac records of their time. These vinyl Rhino 78's were softer and would be destroyed by old juke boxes and old record players, but play very well on newer capable turntables with modern lightweight tone arms and jewel needles.

The vinyl records, however, are easier to scratch or gouge, and much more prone to warping compared to most 78 rpm records, which were made of shellac. InRCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed as program-transcription discs.

RCA Victor's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, consumer playback equipment and consumer rejection during the Great Depression. There were also a couple of longer-playing records issued on ARC for release on their Banner, Perfect, and Oriole labels and on the Crown label. All of these were phased out in mid Vinyl's lower surface noise level than shellac was not forgotten, nor Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl) its durability.

In the late s, radio advertisements and pre-recorded radio programs being sent to disc jockeys started being pressed in vinyl, so they would not break in the mail. In the mids, special DJ copies of records started being made of vinyl also, for the same reason.

These were all 78 rpm. During and after World War IIwhen shellac supplies were extremely limited, some 78 rpm records were pressed in vinyl instead of shellac, particularly the six-minute inch 30 cm 78 rpm records produced by V-Disc for distribution to United States troops in World War II.

Shorter transcriptions were often cut at 78 rpm. Beginning inDr. Peter Goldmark and his staff at Columbia Records and at CBS Laboratories undertook efforts to address problems of recording and playing back narrow grooves and developing an inexpensive, reliable consumer playback system. It took about eight years of study, except when it was suspended because of World War II. Unwilling to accept and license Columbia's system, in FebruaryRCA Victor released the first 45 rpm single, 7 inches in diameter with a large center hole.

The 45 rpm player included a changing mechanism that allowed multiple disks to be stacked, much as a conventional changer handled 78s. The short playing time of a single 45 rpm side meant that long works, such as symphonies, had to be released on multiple 45s instead of a single LP, but RCA Victor claimed that the new high-speed changer rendered side breaks so brief as to be inaudible or inconsequential.

Early 45 rpm records were made from either vinyl or polystyrene. Another size and format was that of radio transcription discs beginning in the s. These records were usually vinyl, 33 rpm, and 16 inches in diameter. No home record player could accommodate such large records, and they were used mainly by radio stations. They were on average 15 minutes per side and contained several songs or radio program material.

These records became less common in the United States when tape recorders began being used for radio transcriptions around In the UK, analog discs continued to be the preferred medium for the licence of BBC transcriptions to overseas broadcasters until the use of CDs became a practical alternative.

On a few early phonograph systems and radio transcription discs, as well as some entire albums, the direction of the groove is reversed, beginning near the center of the disc and leading to the outside.

The earliest rotation speeds varied considerably, but from to most records were recorded at 74—82 revolutions per minute rpm. Edison Disc Records consistently ran at 80 rpm. At least one attempt to lengthen playing time was made in the early s. World Records produced records that played at a constant linear velocitycontrolled by Noel Pemberton Billing 's patented add-on speed governor. This behavior is similar to the modern compact disc and the CLV version of its predecessor, the analog encoded Philips LaserDiscbut is reversed from inside to outside.

In the s, At that speed, a strobe disc with 92 lines would "stand still" in 60 Hz light. In regions of the world that use 50 Hz current, the standard was Earlier they were just called recordsor when there was a need to distinguish them from cylindersdisc records. The older 78 rpm format continued to be mass-produced alongside the newer formats using new materials in decreasing numbers until the summer of in the U.

For example, Columbia Records ' last reissue of Frank Sinatra songs on 78 rpm records was an album called Young at Heartissued in November, In the United Kingdom, the 78 rpm single persisted somewhat longer than in the United States, where it was overtaken in popularity by the 45 rpm in the late s, as teenagers became increasingly affluent.

Some of Elvis Presley 's early singles on Sun Records may have sold more copies on 78 than on In the mids all record companies agreed to a common frequency response standard, called RIAA equalization. Before the establishment of the standard each company used its own preferred equalization, requiring discriminating listeners to use pre-amplifiers with selectable equalization curves.

Prestige Records released jazz records in this format in the late s; for example, two of their Miles Davis albums were paired together in this format. Each record held 40 minutes of music per side, recorded at grooves per inch. The commercial rivalry between RCA Victor and Columbia Records led to RCA Victor's introduction of what it had intended to be a competing vinyl format, the 7-inch mm 45 rpm disc, with a much larger center hole. For a two-year period from torecord companies and consumers faced uncertainty over which of these formats would ultimately prevail in what was known as the "War of the Speeds" see also Format war.

The 45 rpm size was gaining in popularity, too, and Columbia issued its first 45s in February Bymillion 45s had been sold. The 7-inch mm 45 rpm disc or "single" established a significant niche for shorter-duration discs, typically containing one item on each side. The 45 rpm discs typically emulated the playing time of the former 78 rpm discs, while the inch LP discs eventually provided up to one half-hour of recorded material per side.

The 45 rpm discs also came in a variety known as extended play EPwhich achieved up to 10—15 minutes play at the expense of attenuating and possibly compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove. EP discs were cheaper to produce and were used in cases where unit sales were likely to be more limited or to reissue LP albums on the smaller format for those people who had only 45 rpm players.

The large center hole on 45s allows easier handling by jukebox mechanisms. EPs were generally discontinued by the late s in the U. In the late s and early s, rpm-only players that lacked speakers and plugged into a jack on the back of a radio were widely available. Eventually, they were replaced by the three-speed record player. From the mids through the s, in the U. The adapter could be a small solid circle that fit onto the bottom of the spindle meaning only one 45 could be played at a time or a larger adapter that fit over the entire spindle, permitting a stack of 45s to be played.

RCA Victor 45s were also adapted to the smaller spindle of an LP player with a plastic snap-in insert known as a " spider ". In countries outside the U. During the vinyl era, various developments were introduced. Stereo finally lost its previous experimental status, and eventually became standard internationally.

Quadraphonic sound effectively had to wait for digital formats before finding a permanent position in the market place. The term "high fidelity" was coined in the s by some manufacturers of radio receivers and phonographs to differentiate their better-sounding products claimed as providing "perfect" sound reproduction.

After a variety of improvements in recording and playback technologies, especially stereo recordings, which became widely available ingave a boost to the "hi-fi" classification of products, leading to sales of individual components for the home such as amplifiers, loudspeakers, phonographs, and tape players. Stereophonic sound recording, which attempts to provide a more natural listening experience by reproducing the spatial locations of sound sources in the horizontal plane, was the natural extension to monophonic recording, and attracted various alternative engineering attempts.

EMI cut the first stereo test discs using the system in see Bell Labs Stereo Experiments of although the system was not exploited commercially until much later.

In this system, each of two stereo channels is carried independently by a separate groove wall, each wall face moving at 45 degrees to the plane of the record surface hence the system's name in correspondence with the signal level of that channel.

By convention, the inner wall carries the left-hand channel and the outer wall carries the right-hand channel. While the stylus only moves horizontally when reproducing a monophonic disk recording, on stereo records the stylus moves vertically as well as horizontally. During playback, the movement of a single stylus tracking the groove is sensed independently, e. The combined stylus motion can be represented in terms of the vector sum and difference of the two stereo channels.

In the first commercial stereo two-channel records were issued first by Audio Fidelity followed by a translucent blue vinyl on Bel Canto Recordsthe first of which was a multi-colored-vinyl sampler featuring A Stereo Tour of Los Angeles narrated by Jack Wagner on one side, and a collection of tracks from various Bel Canto albums on the back.

However, it was not until the mid-to-late s that the sales of stereophonic LPs overtook those of their monophonic equivalents, and became the dominant record type. The development of quadraphonic records was announced in These recorded four separate sound signals. This was achieved on the two stereo channels by electronic matrixing, where the additional channels were combined into the main signal.

When the records were played, phase-detection circuits in the amplifiers were able to decode the signals into four separate channels. They proved commercially unsuccessful, but were an important precursor to later surround sound systems, as seen in SACD and home cinema today. This system encoded the front-rear difference information on an ultrasonic carrier.

CD-4 was less successful than matrix formats. A further problem was that no cutting heads were available that could handle the high frequency information. This was remedied by cutting at half the speed. Later, the special half-speed cutting heads and equalization techniques were employed to get wider frequency response in stereo with reduced distortion and greater headroom.

The mids saw the introduction of dbx -encoded records labelled " dbx disc " for the audiophile niche market. Encoded disks were recorded with the dynamic range compressed by a factor of two: quiet sounds were meant to be played back at low gain and loud sounds were meant to be played back at high gain, via automatic gain control in the playback equipment; this reduced the effect of surface noise on quiet passages.

A decoder was commercially available [61] but only one demo record [62] is known to have been produced in this format. Since the system was designed with playback compatibility of records on equipment without a CX decoder in mind, the maximum achievable noise reduction was limited to about 20 dB A. A total of about CX-encoded disks were produced internationally.

Availibility of encoded disks in any of these formats stopped in the mids. In fact, the system was undocumentedly introduced into the market by several East-German record labels since The German reunification put an end to the further introduction of the system in Under the direction of recording engineer C.

Robert Fine, Mercury Records initiated a minimalist single microphone monaural recording technique in The first record, a Drum Club - Sound System Part 1 (Vinyl) Symphony Orchestra performance of Pictures at an Exhibitionconducted by Rafael Kubelikwas described as "being in the living presence of the orchestra" by The New York Times music critic. The series of records was then named Mercury Living Presence.

InMercury began three-channel stereo recordings, still based on the principle of the single microphone. The center single microphone was of paramount importance, with the two side mics adding depth and space. Record masters were cut directly from a three-track to two-track mixdown console, with all editing of the master tapes done on the original three-tracks.

The greater thickness and width of 35 mm magnetic film prevented tape layer print-through and pre-echo and gained extended frequency range and transient response. The Mercury Living Presence recordings were remastered to CD in the s by the original producer, Wilma Cozart Fine, using the same method of three-to-two mix directly to the master recorder.

Through the s, s, and s, various methods to improve the dynamic range of mass-produced records involved highly advanced disc cutting equipment. RCA Victor introduced another system to reduce dynamic range and achieve a groove with less surface noise under the commercial name of Dynagroove. Two main elements were combined: another disk material with less surface noise in the groove and dynamic compression for masking background noise.

Sometimes this was called "diaphragming" the source material and not favoured by some music lovers for its unnatural side effects. Both elements were reflected in the brandname of Dynagroove, described elsewhere in more detail. It also used the earlier advanced method of forward-looking control on groove spacing with respect to volume of sound and position on the disk. Lower recorded volume used closer spacing; higher recorded volume used wider spacing, especially with lower frequencies.

Also, the higher track density at lower volumes enabled disk recordings to end farther away from the disk center than usual, helping to reduce endtrack distortion even further. Also in the late s, " direct-to-disc " records were produced, aimed at an audiophile niche market.

These completely bypassed the use of magnetic tape in favor of a "purist" transcription directly to the master lacquer disc. Also during this period, half-speed mastered and "original master" records were released, using expensive state-of-the-art technology. A further late s development was the Disco Eye-Cued system used mainly on Motown inch singles released between and The introduction, drum-breaks, or choruses of a track were indicated by widely separated grooves, giving a visual cue to DJs mixing the records.

The appearance of these records is similar to an LP, but they only contain one track each side. ELPJa Japanese-based company, sells a laser turntable that uses a laser to read vinyl discs optically, without physical contact.

The laser turntable eliminates record wear and the possibility of accidental scratches, which degrade the sound, but its expense limits use primarily to digital archiving of analog records, and the laser does not play back colored vinyl or picture discs. Various other laser-based turntables were tried during the s, but while a laser reads the groove very accurately, since it does not touch the record, the dust that vinyl attracts due to static electric charge is not mechanically pushed out of the groove, worsening sound quality in casual use compared to conventional stylus playback.

In some ways similar to the laser turntable is the IRENE scanning machine for disc records, which images with microphotography, invented by a team of physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. In order to convert to a digital sound file, this is then played by a version of the same 'virtual stylus' program developed by the research team in real-time, converted to digital and, if desired, processed through sound-restoration programs. Terms such as "long-play" LP and "extended-play" EP describe multi-track records that play much longer than the single-item-per-side records, which typically do not go much past four minutes per side.

An LP can play for up to 30 minutes per side, though most played for about 22 minutes per side, bringing the total playing time of a typical LP recording to about forty-five minutes. Many pre LPs, however, played for about 15 minutes per side.

The 7-inch 45 rpm format normally contains one item per side but a 7-inch EP could achieve recording times of 10 to 15 minutes at the expense of attenuating and compressing the sound to reduce the width required by the groove.

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