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In the early hours of 15 August, just as the Foreign Legations were being relieved, Empress Dowager Cixi, dressed in the padded blue cotton of a farm woman, the Guangxu Emperor, and a small retinue climbed into three wooden ox carts and escaped from the city covered with rough blankets.
Legend has it that the Empress Dowager then either ordered that the Guangxu Emperor's favourite concubine, Consort Zhenbe thrown down a well in the Forbidden City or tricked her into drowning herself. The journey was made all the more arduous by the lack of preparation, but the Empress Dowager insisted this was not a retreat, rather a "tour of inspection.
The foreigners had no orders to pursue the Empress Dowager, so they decided to stay put. The Russian Empire and the Qing Empire had maintained a long peace, starting with the Treaty of Nerchinsk inbut Russian forces took advantage of Chinese defeats to impose the Aigun Treaty of and the Treaty of Peking of which ceded formerly Chinese territory in Manchuria to Russia, much of which is held by Russia to the present day Primorye.
The Russians aimed for control over the Amur River for navigation, and the all-weather ports of Dairen and Port Arthur in the Liaodong peninsula. The rise of Japan as an Asian power provoked Russia's anxiety, especially in light of expanding Japanese influence in Korea. Local Chinese in Manchuria were incensed at these Russian advances and began to harass Russians and Russian institutions, such as the Chinese Eastern Railway.
The Czar's government used the pretext of Boxer activity to move sometroops into the area to crush the Boxers. The Chinese used arson to destroy a bridge carrying a railway and a barracks on 27 July. The Boxers destroyed railways and cut lines for telegraphs and burned the Yantai mines. By 21 September, Russian troops took Jilin and Liaodong, and by the end of the month completely occupied Manchuria, where their presence was a major factor leading to the Russo-Japanese War.
The Chinese Honghuzi bandits of Manchuria, who had fought alongside the Boxers in the war, did not stop when the Boxer rebellion was over, and continued guerrilla warfare against the Russian occupation up to the Russo-Japanese war when the Russians were defeated by Japan. Orthodox, Protestant, and Catholic missionaries and their Chinese parishioners were massacred throughout northern China, some by Boxers and others by government troops and authorities.
After the declaration of war on Western powers in JuneYuxian, who had been named governor of Shanxi in March of that year, implemented a brutal anti-foreign and anti-Christian policy. On 9 July, reports circulated that he had executed forty-four foreigners including women and children from missionary families whom he had invited to the provincial capital Taiyuan under the promise to protect them. Journalist and historical writer Nat Brandt has called the massacre of Christians in Shanxi "the greatest single tragedy in the history of Christian evangelicalism.
During the Boxer Rebellion as a whole, a total of Protestant missionaries and 53 children were killed, and 47 Catholic priests and nuns, 30, Chinese Catholics, 2, Chinese Protestants, and to of the Russian Orthodox Christians in Beijing were estimated to have been killed.
Collectively, the Protestant dead were called the China Martyrs of This was the first local canonisation for more than two centuries. Beijing, Tianjin, and other cities in northern China were occupied for more than one year by the international expeditionary force under the command of German General Alfred Graf von Waldersee. Atrocities by foreign troops were common. French troops ravaged the countryside around Beijing on behalf of Chinese Catholics. Yuan Shikai's forces killed tens of thousands of people in their anti Boxer campaign in Zhili Province and Shandong after the Alliance captured Beijing.
For contemporary British and American observers, German, Russian, and Japanese troops received the greatest criticism for their ruthlessness and willingness to wantonly execute Chinese of all ages and backgrounds, sometimes burning and killing entire village populations.
Kaiser Wilhelm II on 27 July during departure ceremonies for the German relief force included an impromptu, but intemperate reference to the Hun invaders of continental Europe which would later be resurrected by British propaganda to mock Germany during the First World War and Second World War:. Should you encounter the enemy, he will be defeated! No quarter will be given!
Prisoners will not be taken! Whoever falls into your hands is forfeited. Just as a thousand years ago the Huns under their King Attila made a name for themselves, one that even today makes them seem mighty in history and legend, may the name German be affirmed by you in such a way in China that no Chinese will ever again dare to look cross-eyed at a German.
One newspaper called the aftermath of the siege a "carnival of ancient loot", and others called it "an orgy of looting" by soldiers, civilians and missionaries. These characterisations called to mind the sacking of the Summer Palace in An American diplomat, Herbert G. Squiersfilled several railway carriages with loot and artifacts. The British Legation held loot auctions every afternoon and proclaimed, "Looting on the part of British troops was carried out in the most orderly manner.
Many of these looted items ended up in Europe. Some but by no means all Western missionaries took an active part in calling for retribution.
To provide restitution to missionaries and Chinese Christian families whose property had been destroyed, William Amenta missionary of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missionsguided American troops through villages to punish those he suspected of being Boxers and confiscate their property. When Mark Twain read of this expedition, he wrote a scathing essay, "To the Person Sitting in Darkness"that attacked the "Reverend bandits of the American Board," especially targeting Ament, one of the most respected missionaries in China.
Ament's counterpart on the distaff side was doughty British missionary Georgina Smith who presided over a neighbourhood in Beijing as judge and jury. While one historical account reported that Japanese troops were astonished by other Alliance troops raping civilians,  others noted that Japanese troops were 'looting and burning without mercy', and that Chinese 'women and girls by hundreds have committed suicide to escape a worse fate at the hands of Russian and Japanese brutes.
The Daily Telegraph journalist E. Dillon stated that he witnessed the mutilated corpses of Chinese women who were raped and killed by the Alliance troops. The French commander dismissed the rapes, attributing them to "gallantry of the French soldier. Many Bannermen supported the Boxers and shared their anti-foreign sentiment.
In the words of historian Pamela Crossleytheir living conditions went "from desperate poverty to true misery. After the capture of Peking by the foreign armies, some of Empress Dowager Cixi's advisers advocated that the war be carried on, arguing that China could have defeated the foreigners as it was disloyal and traitorous people within China who allowed Beijing and Tianjin to be captured by the Allies, and that the interior of China was impenetrable.
They also recommended that Dong Fuxiang continue fighting. The Empress Dowager Cixi was practical, however, and decided that the terms were generous enough for her to acquiesce when she was assured of her continued reign after the war and that China would not be forced to cede any territory.
The protocol ordered the execution of 10 high-ranking officials linked to the outbreak and other officials who were found guilty for the slaughter of foreigners in China. The reparation was to be paid bywithin 39 years, and would be , taels with interest 4 percent per year included. To help meet the payment it R-A-K-A-S - Tapani Kansa - Legendat (File) agreed to increase the existing tariff from an actual 3. The sum of reparation was estimated by the Chinese population roughly million into let each Chinese pay one tael.
Chinese custom income and salt tax were enlisted as guarantee of the reparation. A large portion of the reparations paid to the United States was diverted to pay for the education of Chinese students in U. To prepare the students chosen for this program an institute was established to teach the English language and to serve as a preparatory school. When the first of these students returned to China they undertook the teaching of subsequent students; from this institute was born Tsinghua University.
Some of the reparation due to Britain was later earmarked for a similar program [ citation needed ]. The China Inland Mission lost more members than any other missionary agency:  58 adults and 21 children were killed. However, inwhen the allied nations were demanding compensation from the Chinese government, Hudson Taylor refused to accept payment for loss of property or life in order to demonstrate the meekness and gentleness of Christ to the Chinese.
The Belgian Catholic vicar apostolic of Ordos, Msgr. Alfons Bermyn wanted foreign troops garrisoned in Inner Mongoliabut the Governor refused. It turned out that Bermyn had created the incident as a hoax.
The Qing government did not capitulate to all the R-A-K-A-S - Tapani Kansa - Legendat (File) demands. The Manchu governor Yuxian, was executed, but the imperial court refused to execute the Han Chinese General Dong Fuxiang, although he had also encouraged the killing of foreigners during the rebellion.
Concurrently, the period marks the ceding of European great power interference in Chinese affairs, with the Japanese replacing the Europeans as the dominant power for their lopsided involvement in the war against the Boxers as well as their victory in the First Sino-Japanese War. With the toppling of the Qing that followed and the rise of the Nationalist KuomintangEuropean sway in China was reduced to symbolic status.
After taking Manchuria inJapan came to dominate Asian affairs militarily and culturally with many of the Chinese scholars also educated in Japan, the most prominent example being Sun Yat-Senwho would later found the Nationalist Kuomintang in China.
In OctoberRussia occupied the provinces of Manchuria,  a move that threatened Anglo-American hopes of maintaining the country's openness to commerce under the Open Door Policy. Japan's clash with Russia over Liaodong and other provinces in eastern Manchuria, because of the Russian refusal to honour the terms of the Boxer protocol that called for their withdrawal, led to the Russo-Japanese War when two years of negotiations broke down in February The Russian Lease of the Liaodong was confirmed.
Russia was ultimately defeated by an increasingly-confident Japan. Besides the compensation, Empress Dowager Cixi reluctantly started some reforms, despite her previous views. Known as the New Policieswhich started inthe imperial examination system for government service was eliminated, and the system of education through Chinese classics was replaced with a European liberal system that led to a university degree.
Along with the formation of new military and police organisations, the reforms R-A-K-A-S - Tapani Kansa - Legendat (File) simplified central bureaucracy and made a start at revamping taxation policies. The effect on China was a weakening of the dynasty and its national defence capabilities. The government structure was temporarily sustained by the Europeans. Behind the international conflict, internal ideological differences between northern Chinese anti-foreign royalists and southern Chinese anti-Qing revolutionists were further deepened.
The scenario in the last years of the Qing dynasty gradually escalated into a chaotic warlord era in which the most powerful northern warlords were hostile towards the southern revolutionaries, who overthrew the Qing monarchy in The rivalry was not fully resolved until the northern warlords were defeated by the Kuomintang's —28 Northern Expedition.
Prior to the final defeat of the Boxer Rebellion, all anti-Qing movements in the previous century, such as the Taiping Rebellionhad been successfully suppressed by the Qing. The historian Walter LaFeber has argued that President William McKinley 's decision to send 5, American troops to quell the rebellion marks "the origins of modern presidential war powers": .
McKinley took a historic step in creating a new, 20th century presidential power. He dispatched the five thousand troops without consulting Congress, let alone obtaining a declaration of war, to fight the Boxers who were supported by the Chinese government Presidents had previously used such force against non-governmental groups that threatened U. It was now used, however, against recognised governments, and without obeying the Constitution's provisions about who was to declare war.
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. The intervention in China marked the start of a crucial shift R-A-K-A-S - Tapani Kansa - Legendat (File) the presidential employment of armed force overseas. In the 19th century, military force committed without congressional authorisation had been typically used against nongovernmental organisations. Now it was beginning to be used against sovereign states, and, in the case of Theodore Rooseveltwith less consultation than ever. In the Second Sino-Japanese Warwhen the Japanese asked the Muslim general Ma Hongkui to defect and become head of a Muslim puppet state, he responded that his relatives had been killed during the Battle of Peking, including his uncle Ma Fulu.
Since Japanese troops made up most of the Alliance forces, there would be no co-operation with the Japanese. From the beginning, views differed as to whether the Boxers were better seen as anti-imperialist, patriotic and proto-nationalist, or as "uncivilized" irrational and futile opponents of inevitable change.
The historian Joseph Esherick comments that "confusion about the Boxer Uprising is not simply a matter of popular misconceptions" since "there is no major incident in China's modern history on which the range of professional interpretation is as great". Chinese liberals such as Hu Shih often condemned the Boxers for their irrationality and barbarity.
Sun Yat-senthe founding father of the Republic of China and of the Nationalistsat first believed that the Boxer Movement had been stirred up by the Qing government's rumors, which "caused confusion among the populace" and delivered "scathing criticism" of the Boxers' "anti-foreignism and obscurantism".
Sun praised the Boxers for their "spirit of resistance" but called them "bandits". Students shared an ambivalent attitude to the Boxers and stated that while the uprising originated from the "ignorant and stubborn people of the interior areas", their beliefs were "brave and righteous" and could "be transformed into a moving force for independence. InSun praised their fighting spirit and said that the Boxers were courageous and fearless in fighting to the death against the Alliance armies, specifically the Battle of Yangcun.
In other countries, views of the Boxers were complex and contentious. Mark Twain said that "the Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success.
So Christianly unselfish, and yet so unjustly maligned! Several years ago it unselfishly seized Port Arthur, and now it is unselfishly seizing Manchuria; it has unselfishly flooded the frontier provinces of China with hordes of contractors, engineers, and officers, who, by their conduct, have roused to indignation even the Chinese, known for their docility.
Even some American churchmen spoke out in support of the Boxers. The evangelist Rev. George F. Pentecost said that the Boxer uprising was a. Suppose, he said, "the great nations of Europe were to put their fleets together, came over here, seize Portland, move on down to Boston, then New York, then Philadelphia, and so on down the Atlantic Coast and around the Gulf of Galveston?
Suppose they took possession of these port cities, drove our people into the hinterland, built great warehouses and factories, brought in a body of dissolute agents, and calmly notified our people that henceforward they would manage the commerce of the country? Would we not have a Boxer movement to drive those foreign European Christian devils out of our country?
The Russian newspaper Amurskii Krai criticized the killing of innocent civilians and charged that "restraint", "civilization" and "culture," instead of "racial hatred" and "destruction," would have been more becoming of R-A-K-A-S - Tapani Kansa - Legendat (File) "civilized Christian nation. We shall have to say to them: 'Do not consider us as brothers anymore.
We are mean and terrible people; we have killed those who hid at our place, who sought our protection. The events also left a longer impact. Historian Robert Bickers noted that for the British governmentthe Boxer Rebellion served as the "equivalent of the Indian 'mutiny' ", and the events of the rebellion influenced the idea of the Yellow Peril among the British public.
Later events, he adds, such as the Chinese Nationalist Revolution in the s and even the activities of the Red Guards of the s were perceived as being in the shadow of the Boxers. In Taiwan and Hong Konghistory textbooks often present the Boxer as irrational, but in the People's Republic of Chinagovernment textbooks described the Boxer movement as an anti-imperialist, patriotic peasant movement that failed by the lack of leadership from the modern working class, and they described the international army as an invading force.
In recent decades, however, large-scale projects of village interviews and explorations of archival sources have led historians in China to take a more nuanced view. Some non-Chinese scholars, such as Joseph Esherick, have seen the movement as anti-imperialist, but others hold that the concept "nationalistic" is anachronistic because the Chinese nation had not been formed, and the Boxers were more concerned with regional issues.
Paul Cohen's recent study includes a survey of "the Boxers as myth," which shows how their memory was used in changing ways in 20th-century China from the New Culture Movement to the Cultural Revolution.
In recent years, the Boxer question has been debated in the People's Republic of China. Inthe critical scholar Wang Yi argued that the Boxers had features in common with the extremism of the Cultural Revolution. Both events had the external goal of "liquidating all harmful pests" and the domestic goal of "eliminating bad elements of all descriptions" and that the relation was rooted in "cultural obscurantism.
These are all facts that everybody knows, and it is a national shame that the Chinese people cannot forget. The first known use of the term "Boxer" was September in a letter from missionary Grace Newton in Shandong.
It appears from context that "Boxer" was a known term by that time, possibly coined by the Shandong missionaries Arthur H. Smith and Henry Porter. I Ho Ch'uan
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