Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl)

The output is not very linear however, introducing unwanted distortion. It is difficult to make a crystal pickup suitable for quality stereo reproduction, as the stiff coupling between the crystal and the long stylus prevents close tracking of the needle to the groove modulations. This tends to increase wear on the record, and introduces more distortion. Another problem is the hygroscopic nature of the crystal itself: it absorbs moisture from the air and may dissolve.

The crystal was protected by embedding it in other materials, without hindering the movement of the pickup mechanism itself. After a number of years, the protective jelly often deteriorated or leaked from the cartridge case and the full unit needed replacement.

The next development was the ceramic cartridge, a piezoelectric device that used newer and better materials. These were more sensitive, and offered greater compliancethat is, lack of resistance to movement and so increased ability to follow the undulations of the groove without gross distorting or jumping out of the groove.

Higher compliance meant lower tracking forces and reduced wear to both the disc and stylus. It also allowed ceramic stereo cartridges to be made. Between the s and s, ceramic cartridges became common in low-quality phonographs, but better high-fidelity or "hi-fi" systems used magnetic cartridges.

The availability of low-cost magnetic cartridges from the s onwards made ceramic cartridges obsolete for essentially all purposes. The result, a much smoother frequency curve extended the lifetime for this popular and very cheap type. There are two common designs for magnetic cartridges, moving magnet MM and moving coil MC originally called dynamic.

Both operate on the same physics principle of electromagnetic induction. The moving magnet type was by far the most common and more robust of the two, though audiophiles often claim that the moving coil system yields higher fidelity sound.

In either type, the stylus itself, usually of diamond, is mounted on a tiny metal strut called a cantilever, which is suspended using a collar of highly compliant plastic. This gives the stylus the freedom to move in any direction. On the other end of the cantilever is mounted a tiny permanent magnet moving magnet type or a set of tiny wound coils moving coil type. The magnet is close to a set of fixed pick-up coils, or the moving coils are held within a magnetic field generated by fixed permanent magnets.

In either case, the movement of the stylus as it tracks the grooves of a record causes a fluctuating magnetic field, which causes a small electric current to be induced in the coils.

This current closely follows the sound waveform cut into the record, and may be transmitted by wires to an electronic amplifier where it is processed and amplified in order to drive a loudspeaker. Depending upon the amplifier design, a phono-preamplifier may be necessary. In most moving magnet designs, the stylus itself is detachable from the rest of the cartridge so it can easily be replaced.

There are three primary types of cartridge mounts. The most common type is attached using two small screws to a headshell that then plugs into the tonearm, while another is a standardized "P-mount" or "T4P" cartridge invented by Technics in and adopted by other manufacturers that plugs directly into the tonearm.

Many P-mount cartridges come with adapters to allow them to be mounted to a headshell. The third type is used mainly in cartridges designed for DJ use and it has a standard round headshell connector. Some mass market turntables use a proprietary integrated cartridge that cannot be upgraded.

In these units, the magnet itself sits behind the four coils and magnetises the cores of all four coils. The moving iron cross at the other end of the coils varies the gaps between itself and each of these cores, according to its movements. These variations lead to voltage variations as described above. Strain gauge or "semiconductor" cartridges do not generate a voltage, but act like a variable resistor, whose resistance directly depends on the movement of the stylus.

Thus, the cartridge "modulates" an external voltage supplied by the special preamplifier. The main disadvantage is the need of a special preamplifier that supplies a steady current typically 5mA to the semiconductor elements and handles a special equalization than the one needed for magnetic cartridges. A high-end strain-gauge cartridge is currently sold by an audiophile company, with special preamplifiers available. Electrostatic cartridges [54] were marketed by Stax in the and years. They needed individual operating electronics or preamplifiers.

A few specialist laser turntables read the groove optically using a laser pickup. Since there is no physical contact with the record, no wear is incurred. However, this "no wear" advantage is debatable, since vinyl records have been tested to withstand even plays with no significant audio degradation, provided that it is played with a high quality cartridge and that the surfaces are clean.

An alternative approach is to take a high-resolution photograph or scan of each side of the record and interpret the image of the grooves using computer software. An amateur attempt using a flatbed scanner lacked satisfactory fidelity.

A smooth-tipped stylus in popular usage often called a needle due to the former use of steel needles for the purpose is used to play the recorded groove. A special chisel-like stylus is used to engrave the groove into the master record.

The stylus is subject to hard wear as it is the only small part that comes into direct contact with the spinning record.

In terms of the pressure imposed on its minute areas of actual contact, the forces it must bear are enormous. There are three desired qualities in a stylus: first, that it faithfully follows the contours of the recorded groove and transmits Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) vibrations to the next part in the chain; second, that it does not damage the recorded disc; and third, that it is resistant to wear.

A worn-out, damaged or defective stylus tip will degrade audio quality and injure the groove. Different materials for the stylus have been used over time. Thomas Edison introduced the use of sapphire in and the use of diamond in for his cylinder phonographs. The Edison Diamond Disc players —when properly played, hardly ever required the stylus to be changed. The styli for vinyl records were also made out of sapphire or diamond. It uses a sapphire stem on which a diamond tip is fixed by a special adhesive.

A stylus tip mass as low as 0. Maximum distortion 2nd harmonic fell below 0. The most common material was steel, although other materials such as copper, tungstenbamboo and cactus were used. Steel needles needed to be replaced frequently, preferably after each use, due to their very rapid wear from bearing down heavily on the mildly abrasive shellac record.

Rapid wear was an essential feature so that their imprecisely formed tips would be quickly worn into compliance with the groove's contours. Advertisements implored customers to replace their steel needles after each record side. Steel needles were inexpensive, e. They were available in different thicknesses and lengths. Thick, short needles produced strong, loud tones while thinner, longer needles produces softer, muted tones. Inin the face of a wartime steel shortage, Victor introduced their "Tungs-Tone" brand extra-long-playing needle, which was advertised to play between and records.

It consisted of a brass shank into which a very hard and strong tungsten wire, somewhat narrower than the standard record groove, had been fitted. The protruding wire wore down, but not out, until it was worn too short to use.

Later in the 78 rpm era, hardened steel and chrome-plated needles came on the market, some of which were claimed to play 10 to 20 record sides each. When Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) were introduced for the 78 rpm disc and the LP, they were made by tapering a stem and polishing the tip to a sphere with a radius of around 70 and 25 micrometers respectively.

A sphere is not equal to the form of the cutting stylus and by the time diamond needles came to the market, a whole discussion was started on the effect of circular forms moving through a non-circular cut groove. It can be easily shown that vertical, so called "pinching" movements were a result and when stereophonic LPs were introduced, unwanted vertical modulation was recognized as a problem.

Also, the needle started its life touching the groove on a very small surface, giving extra wear on the walls. Another problem is in the tapering along a straight line, while the side of the groove is far from straight. Both problems were attacked together: by polishing the diamond in a certain way that it could be made doubly elliptic.

With this approach a number of irregularities were eliminated. Furthermore, the angle of the stylus, which used to be always sloping backwards, was changed into the forward direction, in line with the slope the original cutting stylus possessed.

These styli were expensive to produce, but the costs were effectively offset by their extended lifespans. The next development in stylus form came about by the attention to the CD-4 quadraphonic sound modulation process, which requires up to 50 kHz frequency response, with cartridges like Technics EPCCMK4 capable of playback on frequencies up to kHz. A narrow-profile elliptical stylus is able to read the higher frequencies greater than 20 kHzbut at an increased wear, since the contact surface is narrower.

For overcoming this problem, the Shibata stylus was invented around in Japan by Norio Shibata of JVC, [58] fitted as standard on quadraphonic cartridges, and marketed as an extra on some high-end cartridges.

The Shibata-designed stylus offers a greater contact surface with the groove, which in turn means less pressure over the vinyl surface and thus less wear. A positive side effect is that the greater contact surface also means the stylus will read sections of the vinyl that were not touched or "worn" by the common spherical stylus.

In a demonstration by JVC [59] records "worn" after plays at a relatively very high 4. Other advanced stylus shapes appeared following the same goal of increasing contact surface, improving on the Shibata.

A keel-shaped diamond stylus appeared as a byproduct of the invention of the CED Videodisc. This, together with laser-diamond-cutting technologies, made possible the "ridge" shaped stylus, such as the Namiki [64] design, and Fritz Gyger [65] design.

It is important to point out that most of those stylus profiles are still being manufactured and sold, together with the more common spherical and elliptical profiles. This is despite the fact that production of CD-4 quadraphonic records ended by the late s. For elliptical and advanced stylus shapes, correct cartridge alignment is critical. There are several alignment methods, each creating different null points at which the stylus will be tangential to the record grooves, optimizing distortion across the record side in different ways.

Common tools to align the stylus correctly are 2-point protractors which can be used with any turntable as long as the headshells are long enough for the chosen alignmentoverhang gauges and arc protractors model specific.

Early materials in the 19th century were hardened rubber, wax, and celluloid, but early in the 20th century a shellac compound became the standard. Since shellac is not hard enough to withstand the wear of steel needles on heavy tone arms, filler made of pulverized shale was added. Shellac was also fragile, and records often shattered or cracked. This was a problem for home records, but it became a bigger problem in the late s with the Vitaphone sound-on-disc motion picture "talkie" system, developed in To solve this problem, inRCA Victor made unbreakable records by mixing polyvinyl chloride with plasticisers, in a proprietary formula they called Victrolac, which was first used inin motion picture discs, [66] and experimentally, in home records, the same year.

However, with Sound-on-film achieving supremacy over sound-on-disc bythe need for unbreakable records diminished and the production of vinyl home recordings was dropped as well, for the time being. The Victrolac formula improved throughout the s, and by the late 30s the material, by then called vinylite, was being used in records sent to radio stations for radio program records, radio commercials, and later, DJ copies of phonograph records, because vinyl records could be sent through the mail to radio stations without breaking.

Vinylite was made domestically, though, and was being used for V-discs during the war. Record company engineers took a much closer look at the possibilities of vinyl, possibly that it might even replace shellac as the basic record material. For a few years thereafter, however, 78 RPM records continued to be made in shellac until that format was phased out around Early "acoustical" record players used the stylus to vibrate a diaphragm that radiated the sound through a horn. Several serious problems resulted from this:.

The introduction of electronic amplification allowed these issues to be addressed. Records are made with boosted high frequencies and reduced low frequencies, which allow for different ranges of sound to be produced. This reduces the effect of background noise, including clicks or pops, and also conserves the amount of physical space needed for each groove, by reducing the size of the low-frequency undulations. During playback, the high frequencies must be rescaled to their original, flat frequency response—known as "equalization"—as well as being amplified.

A phono input of an amplifier incorporates such equalization as well as amplification to suit the very low level output from a modern cartridge. Most hi-fi amplifiers made between the s and the s and virtually all DJ mixers are so equipped. The widespread adoption of digital music formats, such as CD or satellite radio, has displaced phonograph records and resulted in phono inputs being omitted in most modern amplifiers. Some newer turntables include built-in preamplifiers to produce line-level outputs.

Inexpensive and moderate performance discrete phono preamplifiers with RIAA equalization are available, while high-end audiophile units costing thousands of dollars continue to be available in very small numbers. Phono inputs are starting to reappear on amplifiers in the s due to the vinyl revival. Since the late s, almost all phono input stages have used the RIAA equalization standard. Recordings made using these other equalization schemes will typically sound odd if they are played through a RIAA-equalized preamplifier.

High-performance so-called "multicurve disc" preamplifiers, which include multiple, selectable equalizations, are no longer commonly available. However, some vintage preamplifiers, such as the LEAK varislope series, are still obtainable and can be refurbished. Turntables continued to be manufactured and sold in the s, although in small numbers. While some audiophiles still prefer the sound of vinyl records over that of digital music sources mainly compact discsthey represent a minority of listeners.

Vinyl enthusiasts are often committed to the refurbishment and sometimes tweaking of vintage systems. Updated versions of the s era Technics SL production ceased in [70] have remained an industry standard for DJs to the present day. Turntables and vinyl records remain popular in mixing mostly dance-oriented forms of electronic music, where they allow great latitude for physical manipulation of the music by the DJ.

In hip hop musicand occasionally in other genres, the turntable is used as a musical instrument by DJswho use turntables along with a DJ mixer to create unique rhythmic sounds. Manipulation of a record as part of the music, rather than for normal playback or mixing, is called turntablism. The basis of turntablism, and its best known technique, is scratchingpioneered by Grand Wizzard Theodore.

It was not until Herbie Hancock 's " Rockit " in that the turntablism movement was recognized in popular music outside of a hip hop context. In the s, many hip hop DJs use DJ CD players or digital record emulator devices to create scratching sounds; nevertheless, some DJs still scratch with vinyl records.

The laser turntable uses a laser as the pickup instead of a stylus in physical contact with the disk. It was conceived of in the late s, although early prototypes were not of usable audio quality.

Practical laser turntables are now being manufactured by ELPJ. They are favoured by record libraries and some audiophiles since they eliminate physical wear completely. Experimentation is in progress in retrieving the audio from old records by scanning the disc and analysing the scanned image, rather than using any sort of turntable.

Although largely replaced since the introduction of the compact disc inrecord albums still sell in small numbers and are available through numerous sources. USB turntables have a built-in audio interface, which transfers the sound directly to the connected computer. There are also many turntables on the market designed to be plugged into a computer via a USB port for needle dropping purposes.

Responding to longtime calls by fans and disc jockeys, Panasonic Corp. The new analog turntable, which would come with new direct-drive motor technologies that Panasonic says will improve the quality of sound.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For its use as a musical instrument, see Turntablism. For other uses, see Turntable disambiguation. For other uses, see Gramophone disambiguation. Not to be confused with Phonogram. Device for playback of acoustic sounds stored as deviations on a disk or cylinder. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Phonautograph. However, the requirements of high-fidelity reproduction place more demands upon the arm design. In a perfect world:. These demands are contradictory and Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) to realize massless arms and zero-friction bearings do not exist in the real worldso tone arm designs require engineering compromises.

Solutions vary, but all modern tonearms are at least relatively lightweight and stiff constructions, with precision, very low friction pivot bearings in both the vertical and horizontal axes. Most arms are made from some kind of alloy the cheapest being aluminiumbut some manufacturers use balsa wood, while others use carbon fiber or graphite.

The latter materials favor a straight arm design; alloys' properties lend themselves to S-type arms. The tone arm got its name before the age of electronics.

It originally served to conduct actual sound waves from a purely mechanical "pickup" called a sound box or reproducer to a so-described "amplifying" horn. The earliest electronic record players, introduced at the end ofhad massive electromagnetic pickups that contained a horseshoe magnet, used disposable steel needles, and weighed several ounces. Their full weight rested on the record, providing ample tracking force to overcome their low compliance but causing rapid record wear.

The tone arms were rudimentary and remained so even after lighter crystal pickups appeared about ten years later. When fine-grooved vinyl records were introduced in the late s, still smaller and lighter crystal later, ceramic cartridges with semi-permanent jewel styluses became standard. In the mids these were joined by a new generation of magnetic cartridges that bore little resemblance to their crude ancestors.

Far smaller tracking forces became possible and the balanced arm came into use. Prices varied widely. The well-known and extremely popular high-end S-type SME arm of the — era not only had a complicated design, it was also very costly.

It was used during that period by all official radio stations in the Dutch Broadcast studio facilities of the NOS, as well as by the pirate radio station Veronica. Playing records from a boat in international waters, the arm had to withstand sudden ship movements. Anecdotes indicate this low-cost arm was the only one capable of keeping the needle firmly in the groove during heavy storms at sea.

Quality arms employ an adjustable counterweight to offset the mass of the arm and various cartridges and headshells. On this counterweight, a calibrated dial enables easy adjustment of stylus force. After perfectly balancing the arm, the dial itself is "zeroed"; the stylus force can then be dialed in by screwing the counterweight towards the fulcrum.

Sometimes a separate spring or smaller weight provides fine tuning. Stylus forces of 10 to 20 mN 1 to 2 grams-force are typical for modern consumer turntables, while forces of up to 50 mN 5 grams are common for the tougher environmental demands of party deejaying or turntablism. Of special adjustment consideration, Stanton cartridges of the EE E series [and others like them] feature a small record brush ahead of the cartridge. The upforce of this brush, and its added drag require compensation of both tracking force add 1 gram and anti-skating adjustment values see next paragraph for description.

Even on a perfectly flat LP, tonearms are prone to two types of tracking errors that affect the sound. As the tonearm tracks the groove, the stylus exerts a frictional force tangent to the arc of the groove, and since this force does not intersect the tone arm pivot, a clockwise rotational force moment occurs and a reaction skating force is exerted on the stylus by the record groove wall away from center of the disc.

Modern arms provide an anti-skate mechanismusing springs, hanging weights, or magnets to produce an offsetting counter-clockwise force at the pivot, making the net lateral force on the groove walls near zero. The second error occurs as the arm sweeps in an arc across the disc, causing the angle between the cartridge head and groove to change slightly.

Making the arm longer to reduce this angle is a partial solution, but less than ideal. A longer arm weighs more, and only an infinitely long [pivoted] arm would reduce the error to zero. Some designs Burne-Jones, and Garrard "Zero" series use dual arms in a parallelogram arrangement, pivoting the cartridge head to maintain a constant angle as it moves across the record.

Unfortunately this "solution" creates more problems than it solves, compromising rigidity and creating sources of unwanted noise. The pivoted arm produces yet another problem which is unlikely to be significant to the audiophile, though. As the master was originally cut in a linear motion from the edge towards the center, but the stylus on the pivoted arm always draws an arc, this causes a timing drift that is most significant when digitizing music and beat mapping the data for synchronization with other songs in a DAW or DJ software unless the software allows building a non-linear beat map.

As the contact point of the stylus on the record wanders farther from the linear path between the starting point and center hole, the tempo and pitch tend to decrease towards the middle of the record, until the arc reaches its apex. After that the tempo and pitch increase towards the end as the contact point comes closer to the linear path again. Because the surface speed of the record is lower at the end, the relative speed error from the same absolute distance error is higher at the end, and the increase in tempo is more notable towards the end than the decrease towards the middle.

This can be somewhat reduced by a curved arm pivoted so that the end point of the arc stays farther from the linear path than the starting point, or by a long straight arm that pivots perpendicularly to the linear path in the middle of the record. However the tempo droop at the middle can only be completely avoided by a linear tracking arm. If the arm is not pivoted, but instead carries the stylus along a radius of the disc, there is no skating force and little to no cartridge angle error.

Such arms are known as linear tracking or tangential arms. These are driven along a track by various means, from strings and pulleys, to worm gears or electromagnets.

The cartridge's position is usually regulated by an electronic servomechanism or mechanical interface, moving the stylus properly over the groove as the record plays, or for song selection. There are long-armed and short-armed linear arm designs. On a perfectly flat record a short arm will do, but once the record is even slightly warped, a short arm will be troublesome.

Any vertical motion of the record surface at the stylus contact point will cause the stylus to considerably move longitudinally in the groove. This will cause the stylus to ride non-tangentially in the groove and cause a stereo phase error as well as pitch error every time the stylus rides over the warp. Also the arm track can come into touch with the record.

A long arm will not completely eliminate this problem but will tolerate warped records much better. These were eclipsed by more successful implementations of the concept from the late s through the early s. These models positioned the track outside the platter's edge, as did turntables by Harman Kardon, Mitsubishi, Pioneer, Yamaha, Sony, etc.

A s design from Revox harkened back to the s attempts and, record lathespositioning the track directly over the record. An enclosed bridge-like assembly is swung into place from the platter's right edge to its middle. Once in place, a short tonearm under this "bridge" plays the record, driven across laterally by a motor.

The Technics SLintroduced inwas the first direct drive linear tracking turntable, and placed the track and arm on the underside of the rear-hinged dust cover, to fold down over the record, similar to the SL-Q6 pictured. The earliest Edison phonographs used horizontal, spring-powered drives to carry the stylus across the recording at a pre-determined rate.

The resources it takes to produce one incredible linear turntable could produce several excellent ones. Some of the most sophisticated and expensive tonearms and turntable units ever made are linear trackers, from companies such as Rockport and Clearaudio.

In theory, it seems nearly ideal; a stylus replicating the motion of the recording lathe used to cut the "master" record could result in minimal wear and maximum sound reproduction.

In practice, in vinyl's heyday it was generally too much too late. Since the early s, an elegant solution has been the near-frictionless air bearing linear arm that requires no tracking drive mechanism other than the record groove. This provides a similar benefit as the electronic linear tonearm without the complexity and necessity of servo-motor correction for tracking error.

In this case the trade-off is the introduction of pneumatics in the form of audible pumps and tubing. A more elegant solution is the mechanically driven low-friction design, also driven by the groove. Examples include Souther Engineering U. This design places an exceeding demand upon precision engineering due to the lack of pneumatics. Historically, most high-fidelity "component" systems preamplifiers or receivers that accepted input from a phonograph turntable had separate inputs for both ceramic and magnetic cartridges typically labeled "CER" and "MAG".

One piece systems often had no additional phono inputs at all, regardless of type. Most systems today, if they accept input from a turntable at all, are configured for use only with magnetic cartridges.

Manufacturers of high-end systems often have in-built moving coil amplifier circuitry, or outboard head-amplifiers supporting either moving magnet or moving coil cartridges that can be plugged into the line stage.

Additionally, cartridges may contain styli or needles that can be separated according to their tip: Spherical styli, and elliptical styli. Spherical styli have their tip shaped like one half of a sphere, and elliptical styli have their tip shaped like one end of an ellipse. Spherical styli preserve more of the groove of the record than elliptical styli, while elliptical styli offer higher sound quality. Early electronic phonographs used a piezo-electric crystal for pickup though the earliest electronic phonographs used crude magnetic pick-upswhere the mechanical movement of the stylus in the groove generates a proportional electrical voltage by creating stress within a crystal typically Rochelle salt.

Crystal pickups are relatively robust, and produce a substantial signal level which requires only a modest amount of further amplification. The output is not very linear however, introducing unwanted distortion. It is difficult to make a crystal pickup suitable for quality stereo reproduction, as the stiff coupling between the crystal and the long stylus prevents close tracking of the needle to the groove modulations.

This tends to increase wear on the record, and introduces more distortion. Another problem is the hygroscopic nature of the crystal itself: it absorbs moisture from the air and may dissolve. The crystal was protected by embedding it in other materials, without hindering the movement of the pickup mechanism itself.

After a number of years, the protective jelly often deteriorated or leaked from the cartridge case and the full unit needed replacement. The next development was the ceramic cartridge, a piezoelectric device that used newer and better materials. These were more sensitive, and offered greater compliancethat is, lack of resistance to movement and so increased ability to follow the undulations of the groove without gross distorting or jumping out of the groove.

Higher compliance meant lower tracking forces and reduced wear to both the disc and stylus. It also allowed ceramic stereo cartridges to be made. Between the s and s, ceramic cartridges became common in low-quality phonographs, but better high-fidelity or "hi-fi" systems used magnetic cartridges.

The availability of low-cost magnetic cartridges from the s onwards made ceramic cartridges obsolete for essentially all purposes. The result, a much smoother frequency curve extended the lifetime for this popular and very cheap type.

There are two common designs for magnetic cartridges, moving magnet MM and moving coil MC originally called dynamic. Both operate on the same physics principle of electromagnetic induction. The moving magnet type was by far the most common and more robust of the two, though audiophiles often claim that the moving coil system yields higher fidelity sound. In either type, the stylus itself, usually of diamond, is mounted on a tiny metal strut called a cantilever, which is suspended using a collar of highly compliant plastic.

This gives the stylus the freedom to move in any direction. On the other end of the cantilever is mounted a tiny permanent magnet moving magnet type or a set of tiny wound coils moving coil type.

The magnet is close to a set of fixed pick-up coils, or the moving coils are held within a magnetic field generated by fixed permanent magnets. In either case, the movement of the stylus as it tracks the grooves of a record causes a fluctuating magnetic field, which causes a small electric current to be induced in the coils.

This current closely follows the sound waveform cut into the record, and may be transmitted by wires to an electronic amplifier where it is processed and amplified in order to drive a loudspeaker.

Depending upon the amplifier design, a phono-preamplifier may be necessary. In most moving magnet designs, the stylus itself is detachable from the rest of the cartridge so it can easily be replaced. There are three primary types of cartridge mounts. The most common type is attached using two small screws to a headshell that then plugs into the tonearm, while another is a standardized "P-mount" or "T4P" cartridge invented by Technics in and adopted by other manufacturers that plugs directly into the tonearm.

Many P-mount cartridges come with adapters to allow them to be mounted to a headshell. The third type is used mainly in cartridges designed for DJ use and it has a standard round headshell connector. Some mass market turntables use a proprietary integrated cartridge that cannot be upgraded.

In these units, the magnet itself sits behind the four coils and magnetises the cores of all four coils. The moving iron cross at the other end of the coils varies the gaps between itself and each of these cores, according to its movements. These variations lead to voltage variations as described above.

Strain gauge or "semiconductor" cartridges do not generate a voltage, but act like a variable resistor, whose resistance directly depends on the movement of the stylus. Thus, the cartridge "modulates" an external voltage supplied by the special preamplifier.

The main disadvantage is the need of a special preamplifier that supplies a steady current typically 5mA to the semiconductor elements and handles a special equalization than the one needed for magnetic cartridges. A high-end strain-gauge cartridge is currently sold by an audiophile company, with special preamplifiers available.

Electrostatic cartridges [54] were marketed by Stax in the and years. They needed individual operating electronics or preamplifiers. A few specialist laser turntables read the groove optically using a laser pickup. Since there is no physical contact with the record, no wear is incurred. However, this "no wear" advantage is debatable, since vinyl records have been tested to withstand even plays with no significant audio degradation, provided that it is played with a high quality cartridge and that the surfaces are clean.

An alternative approach is to take a high-resolution photograph or scan of each side of the record and interpret the image of the grooves using computer software. An amateur attempt using a flatbed scanner lacked satisfactory fidelity. A smooth-tipped stylus in popular usage often called a needle due to the former use of steel needles for the purpose is used to play the recorded groove.

A special chisel-like stylus is used to engrave the groove into the master record. The stylus is subject to hard wear as it is the only small part that comes into direct contact with the spinning record. In terms of the pressure imposed on its minute areas of actual contact, the forces it must bear are enormous.

There are three desired qualities in a stylus: first, that it faithfully follows the contours of the recorded groove and transmits its vibrations to the next part in the chain; second, that it does not damage the recorded disc; and third, that it is resistant to wear. A worn-out, damaged or defective stylus tip will degrade audio quality and injure the groove.

Different materials for the stylus have been used over time. Thomas Edison introduced the use of sapphire in and the use of diamond in for his cylinder phonographs. The Edison Diamond Disc players —when properly played, hardly ever required the stylus to be changed. The styli for vinyl records were also made out of sapphire or diamond. It uses a sapphire stem on which a diamond tip is fixed by a special adhesive. A stylus tip mass as low as 0.

Maximum distortion 2nd harmonic fell below 0. The most common material was steel, although other materials such as copper, tungstenbamboo and cactus were used.

Steel needles needed to be replaced frequently, preferably after each use, due to their very rapid wear from bearing down heavily on the mildly abrasive shellac record. Rapid wear was an essential feature so that their imprecisely formed tips would be quickly worn into compliance with the groove's contours. Advertisements implored customers to replace their steel needles after each record side.

Steel needles were inexpensive, e. They were available in different thicknesses and lengths. Thick, short needles produced strong, loud tones while thinner, longer needles produces softer, muted tones. Inin the face of a wartime steel shortage, Victor introduced their "Tungs-Tone" brand extra-long-playing needle, which was advertised to play between and records. It consisted of a brass shank into which a very hard and strong tungsten wire, somewhat narrower than the standard record groove, had been fitted.

The protruding wire wore down, but not out, until it was worn too short to use. Later in the 78 rpm era, hardened steel and chrome-plated needles came on the market, some of which were claimed to play 10 to 20 record sides each. When sapphires were introduced for the 78 rpm disc and the LP, they were made by tapering a stem and polishing the tip to a sphere with a radius of around 70 and 25 micrometers respectively.

A sphere is not equal to the form of the cutting stylus and by the time diamond needles came to the market, a whole discussion was started on the effect of circular forms moving through a non-circular cut groove.

It can be easily shown that vertical, so called "pinching" movements were a result and when stereophonic LPs were introduced, unwanted vertical modulation was recognized as a problem. Cat Size 6. American Lady 8. Glycerine Queen 9. Can The Can Devil Gate Drive Roxy Roller Tear Me Apart Keep A-Knockin'. Five-track EP on heavyweight vinyl. Includes four tracks from the Live Around The World album, and one unreleased live track.

LP: 1. The famed performance - recorded in Australia during their End Of The Century tour - contains 23 tracks, many of which are rare songs from the album that did not remain in their sets following this tour.

Permanent Records is profoundly proud to present this limited edition reissue of Raven's highly regarded wasted hard rock masterpiece, Back To Ohio Blues. More hard rock than blues, this stoned proto-punk record is one-of-a-kind and is finally being reissued with its original minimalist artwork. But don't take our word for it, here's what the heads at Acid Archives had to say about this rarity: "Messed up bluesy hard rock biker statement which I'm told comes straight from this guy's reality, no posing but the real thing.

Great punky vocals relate stories on smack, sex, Ohio, Harleys and everything else that makes life worth living. An impressive intensity especially on side 1 and one of the few local white blues rock LP's that truly works. A classic of mid '70's local hard stoner dementia; would make a good double bill with the Merry Airbrakes. Exclusively available for Record Store Dayand strictly limited to 9, copies worldwide. RSD Drops Exclusive! A double LP pressed on Yellow g vinyl with expanded original artwork.

Includes two 8. Remastered by Bob Ludwig, Gateway Mastering. Limited to a worldwide piece pressing. Station Identification Intro feat. Fatman Scoop 2. The Invitation feat. Come On Baby feat. War 5. Bring Me Down Pt. Friends 7. The Greatest Story Never Told 8. Clap feat. Faith Evans 9. Preacher It's Alright feat. Believe It Give It to Me feat.

Raheem DeVaughn What the Lovers Do feat. Devin The Dude Better Way feat. Oh Yeah Our Babies And the Winner Is feat. Bun B Too Long feat. Black Thought I was pouring sweat alongside people who had just met that day for the first time to play a show under the name St. Now, over 8 years later, we built a career out of it. During this pandemic, I have gotten awfully nostalgic. For a time, we would travel constantly and shows started blending together.

That endorphin rush was taken for granted. The first moment we had to play a socially distanced show, I knew exactly what we should do. Play a show at Avondale Brewery and do our debut album in full. Something I would never had done if the pandemic had not happened. The beauty though of looking back at the beginning was realizing all the great people that helped us turn a summer fling into an actual career. It was such a beautiful time.

Here is the live recording from that show that night. New inch EP is the latest release on Records Store Daya collection of his new songs recorded during the pandemic, available on vinyl. The B-side features "By Swallow Season" - a mid-tempo jazzy boogie track, with sentimental lyrics over a floating mellow wah-wah guitar and melancholy saxophone. An ultimate soul classic in contemporary Japan, the echoey steel guitar and the dry strumming blends in with the tight groove, along with his straightforward lyrics like "People and events that were pretended it didn't exist".

Side A 1. The Feeling Of Love 2. Obscure Nightclub Side B 1. By Swallow Season 2. Don't Tinker With History. This concert was previously a digital only-release.

This first physical release comes on double red vinyl for RSD Drops. Armed And Ready 2. Cry For The Nations 3. Victim Of Illusion 4. Natural Thing 5. Feels Like A Good Thing 6. Into The Arena 7. Looking Out From Nowhere 8. Rock Bottom 9. Tales Of Mystery Lost Horizons Band Introductions Shoot Shoot Doctor Doctor Lights Out. Murder 2. Out On the Streets 3. James bond 4. Sweet Collie 5. Street Feeling 6.

Everyday 7. The Selecter 8. Danger 9. They Make Me Made Carry Go Bring Come On My Radio Too Much Pressure. Two of the sessions were with admired radio broadcaster John Peel. This title charts their earliest days as an indie band in to the time they signed to Warner Records in It will all be available on smoky vinyl. Side One - John Peel Session 1. Alice, 3. Good Things, 4. Heartland, 2. Jolene, 3. Valentine, 4. Walk Away, 2. Poison Door, 3.

No Time To Cry, 4. It's a release not to miss. Numbered - silver foil - purple vinyl. Don Carlos Lazer Beam feat. Don Carlos Holiday feat. Don Carlos Brethren Party Remix feat. Don Carlos. For the first time ever, all of the Small Faces classic Decca and Immediate singles from are included on one LP. All have been newly remastered to vinyl from the original Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) and Immediate master tapes by Nick Robbins at Soundmastering Studios in London under the supervision of surviving Small Faces member Kenney Jones who also pens a touching introductory sleeve note.

Each LP will also come with a colour postcard with the LP cover artwork, hand-signed by Small Faces drummer Kenney Jones on one side and a facsimile of a Decca band member biog on the other side. A complete delight. Baleedat feat. Ashtray feat. Game 7 feat. Turnbuckle Music feat. Lo Horsemen feat. The Prelude To Judgement Day. Fans and collector completists alike are in for a real treat, with Side A featuring three unreleased gems from the vaults of the Lotus era!

Having just unleashed their critically acclaimed fifth studio album IMPERIAL, SOEN are an undeniable cypher for all which swirls around us, something which will continue to set them apart from their peers for years to come.

The title track is something of an homage to John Coltrane, through blue-colored glasses. Chris Stamey has delivered an inspired album for this Record Store Day release.

One More Hurt 2. Spread Your Love On Me 3. Where Were You 3. Do Right Woman 3. We Had It All 2. Slipping Away 3. I'll Be Here 3. Trouble, Heartaches And Sadness 2. Jolene 4. Lose You Now with Mako 2. Guardian 3. Kiesza 4. Torch Bringer 5. Bad Girls, released by Casablanca Records on April 25,is widely considered one of the greatest disco albums. This rare collection comes from the personal vault of Sweet lead guitarist Andy Scott.

Sweet fans worldwide will be amazed by the rarity of the alternate takes and mixes. Grunge metal greatness! This record marked Tad's major label debut on the Giant imprintand for it the band brought in Dinosaur Jr. The result was a more focused album than Tad's previous outings, laced with piledriver riffs 'n' hooks and some wicked humor, even as the band grappled with such disturbing topics as Ted Bundy and child abduction.

The band toured with Soundgarden behind this record; though that didn't lead to the hoped-for commercial breakthrough, it did cement Inhaler's status as the go-to record in Tad's catalog. Only out on LP for a heartbeat upon its initial release, and never reissued since, Inhaler comes in tan, black and red "Mutt Mix" swirl vinyl limited to copies for RSD Drops.

Elephants in the Thai jungle playing specially designed musical instruments. The elephants improvise the music themselves. This is the first vinyl pressing and includes new liner notes from Dave Soldier.

Red Hot Chili Peppers fans are going to love this rare and recently discovered audio gem. Toby Redd was a fan favorite in the Midwest headlining larger club venues and festivals during the mid 80s. This RSD Drops exclusive comes on red vinyl to celebrate one of the greatest bands to emerge out of the Motor City in the s. A must for any Red Hot Chili Peppers fan! Astradyne 2. New Europeans 3. Private Lives 4. Passing Strangers 5. Sleepwalk 6. Western Promise 8.

Vienna 9. All Stood Still Astradyne New Europeans [Instrumental] Private Lives [Instrumental] Passing Strangers [Instrumental]. Sleepwalk [Instrumental] X [Instrumental] Western Promise [Instrumental] Vienna [Instrumental] All Stood Still [Instrumental].

Besides that, the album was No. And that same week it entered the US Billboard compilation chart at 5, after being tipped by Rolling Stone magazine as one of their favorite RSD releases to look out for. So more than enough reasons for a second volume, to be released on RSD The concept is the same: Much sought-after Dutch beat and psych rarities on a colored vinyl double LP, with amazing artwork, track-by-track liner notes and band photos. All songs on Volume 2 have been newly transferred and remastered from the original master tapes, some in their original mono versions, including two newly unearthed, previously unreleased gems.

Side B 1. Crash - Last Week 5. Side C 1. Side D 1. With each Trip, we unearth even more incredible bangers that somehow eluded popularity in their day For every classic rock mainstay like Black Sabbath and Grand Funk Railroad, there are hundreds of great bands who, for a variety of reasons, were previously lost to the sands of time.

Brown Acid seeks to rectify that, with all tracks painstakingly licensed legitimately and ensuring that the original artists are paid. You may be familiar with George Brigman's psychedelic punk masterpiece Jungle Rot, but you don't know Split until you've heard the charmingly disjointed bedroom-fi production of "Blowin' Smoke. Luke and the Apostles ain't no Xian group, even though this 45 is of biblical proportions.

Back inthe band recorded 10 original songs at 8-Track Studios in Chicago, only to break up shortly thereafter. Two of the tracks were eventually released as a 45 inbut confusingly under a different band name, Zukus! Louisville, KY quartet Conception's excellent revision of Blue Cheer's "Babylon" adds heavy phaser effect on the guitar and a more driving rhythm to make the song entirely their own.

Lead guitar and high harmony vocals by Charlie Day not to be confused with the Sunny Philadelphian actor are assertive and commanding as he implores listeners onward to hallucinogenic nirvana. Written by Charlie Kaufman and directed by Michel Gondry, the movie follows an estranged couple Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet who have erased each other from their memories. The soundtrack features score, composed by Los Angeles musician Jon Brion, as well as songs from artists E.

Orange Swirl 2LP. Theme - Performed by Jon Brion 2. Collecting Things - Performed by Jon Brion 4. Bookstore - Performed by Jon Brion 6. Showtime - Performed by Jon Brion 9. Sidewalk Fight - Performed by Jon Brion Something - Performed by Willowz Postcard - Performed by Jon Brion I Wonder - Performed by Willowz Peer Pressure - Performed by Jon Brion Phone Call - Performed by Jon Brion Nola's Bounce - Performed by Don Nelson Row - Performed by Jon Brion Drive In - Performed by Jon Brion Main Title - Performed by Jon Brion Spotless Mind - Performed by Jon Brion Elephant Parade - Performed by Jon Brion.

Seriously rare, killer and classic funk tunes brought together here in this unique one-off pressing for RSD Drops Heavy funk overview full of independent classics. An anthology of DJ favorites and breakbeat essentials. The Gaturs-Gatur Bait 4. Herbie Thompson-Keep On Stepping 8.

City Council Ltd. Bobo Mr. And it is most certainly the first to offer a hip-hop Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) on a Prine song, performed by Chicago-based Ifjams.

Kindercore Vinyl is also a sponsor of this very special project. All proceeds from vinyl and digital sales will benefit the Nashville Rescue Mission, a charity chosen by the Prine family.

Heaven Honey - ''Down by the Side of the Road'' 4. Chris Crofton - ''Lake Marie'' 2. Chandelle - ''Lonesome Friends of Science'' 3. Justin and The Cosmics - ''Clay Pigeons'' 4. Treasure Mammal - ''I Remember Everything'' 5.

SIDE C 1. Krista Shows - ''Christmas in Prison'' 3. Hardy Morris - ''Sour Grapes'' 4. SIDE D 1. Dude City - ''Angel From Montgomery'' 3. Mike Giacolino ft. Junior Tutwiler - ''Everybody'' 4. Local Opener - ''Pretty Good''. Seventeen distinguished artists come together in tribute to one of the most influential musicians behind soul and political conscious African-American music.

Pressed on light blue and grey mixed vinyl. The Timeless series captured the lasting impact of several artists on the world of hip-hop and beyond. This premiere performance left many in the sold out crowd in tears. Morning Order 2. Antiquity 3. Le Yachting 4. Welcome 2 Detriot 2. Gobstopper 3. Take Notice 4. Affolements Granitiques 5. Jealousy C Side: 1. They asked her what happened and she related her bizarre experience.

When her grandmother asked her what the inscription was on the white stone she swallowed, Narda yelled Her grandmother and brother were both startled by a flash of light and smoke that filled the room. Where Narda once stood, there now was a tall, beautiful warrior woman. She explained to them that she was "Darna of the Planet Marte" and that she was sent to Earth to face the forces of darkness and hatred that afflicted the world.

Narda was channeling the alien woman. After she assured them that she meant no harm, Darna changed back to Narda by saying the latter's name. Regardless of its many incarnations, the story of Darna begins with a village girl named Narda who finds a small white stone, a tiny meteorite from outer space.

Narda swallows the stone and shouts "Darna," she becomes a mighty warrior ready to defend Earth from evil forces. Daria is a grown up version of Narda. Darna faces a variety of foes ranging from common criminals to outlandish supervillains, often having tragic origin stories that lead them to a life of crime and evil.

Valentina is the most iconic Filipino super-villain created by Mars Ravelo. If you have Darna, Valentina will eventually strike.

Many of Darna's adversaries are often women. She envies Narda and never appreciates what is her own; she torments her and becomes the cause of most of her misfortunes. She can control all kinds of snakes being from the same race as the Serpent Queens of Tiamat.

In most incarnations, she has snakes on her head which she hides under a wig like the Gorgon Medusa. Cristina Aragon was the first to play Valentina on the big screen opposite the first Darna, Rosa del Rosario in Darna Pilar Pilapil played the role in Darna Pilita Corrales played Valentina in Darna! Ang Pagbabalik Darna: The Return As Darna flew to the small screen so did Valentina. She was born with superhuman strength and agility in the comics.

Liza Lorena played the role in Lipad, Darna, Lipad! But in the TV series, Babaeng Lawin Armida the Robotic Hawk Womanplayed by Ehra Madrigalhas enhanced strength, endurance, durability, speed and healing after being experimented on.

Babaeng Impakta is another classic Darna villainess that was updated in the TV series. She appeared in Kenkoy Komiks ' Darna at ang Impakta Babaeng Impakta is actually a pair of conjoined twins—Roma and her impish twin. Roma was first played by Gina Alonzo and Paquito Salcedo played the demonic conjoined twin on the big screen in Si Darna at ang Impakta Impakta was played by Bing Loyzaga in Darna Roma who was born to a prominent family appears like a normal human with an angelic face and a sweet demeanor but her back is grotesquely humped.

Babaeng Linta got her powers from a lake infested with leeches. Octavia used her newfound abilities to wreak vengeance upon the men that molested her, one Body Language - Various - Dancing Dance / Take This Train (Vinyl) which was Adolfo Sandejas, Pancho's played by Dennis Trillo grandfather. Marissa Delgado played Dr. Vontesberg in Darna at Ding Dyangga appeared in Darna Komiks' Darna vs.

Dyangga January 21, Alice Dixson had a cameo as Dyangga in the TV series. Dixson played another Ravelo creation, Dyesebel in the film of the same name. But in the series, it was Ara Mina who portrayed Dyesebel for a cameo.

Valentine Adan is Valentina's daughter. Cherie Gil played Valentine in Darna! She is often confused as Valentina who was played by Pilita Corrales. Like Valentina and Medusa, she has snakes on her head. Ang Pagbabalik Mirca first appeared in Super Action Vol. Carmi is an orphan who founds the second stone landing somewhere in Europe and with the stone's power, she becomes the heroine Mirca who sells her services to the highest bidder.

Ion is a strange reptile-like alien creature who first appeared in Super Action Vol. He holds the third stone and assumes a human disguise as Oni Basilisk, the head of the weapons manufacturing firm Kran Industries. She rarely assumes her full serpentine form compared to Ebony and prefers to utilize her humanoid reptilian form complete with legs. Mambabarang Lord of Insects and Pests wreaks havoc in society with his insects and pests.

Eddie Garcia played Mambabarang in the TV series. His life took a twisted turn after the death of his beloved wife. His concoction had the power to reanimate the dead-into zombies. He also wields an assortment of weaponry unique only to himself.

Christopher de Leon played Dr. Braguda, the Queen of Darkness and ruler of the Anomalkas Planet Marte's evil underground dwelling raceis the main villain of the TV series. She is the powerful queen of the Anomalkan race of the Planet Marte who dreams of the whole galaxy bowing down to her but for that to happen, she must obtain Darna's white stone and merge it with her black stone so that she may transform the Planet Earth into a new version of the Planet Marte.

Perfecta in the TV series. Sulfura Human Volcano has the power to fly, and spew fire, rocks and acid to melt her enemies. Carmina Villarroel played Sulfura. Nosferamus, a super being like the Grim Reaperis the right-hand man of Braguda. He is the transformed form of Narda's father who she thought is dead.

His powers include being able to dissolve into a black mist, summon blasts of dark-red energy, and conjure a lump of molten metal which he flung at Darna's eyes, blinding the superheroine. He died when he sacrificed his life for his daughter. She was the result of Darna's cooped up emotions; Darna's essence turned into a supervillain of equal strength and ability.

Black Darna is one of the most formidable adversaries of Darna as she's also noticeably faster than her. Like Darna, her only weakness is that she draws her powers from the white stone.

Molecula Toxic Woman is a shapeshifter who can break herself apart to a molecular level, splitting herself to countless, minute molecular parts to gain more mobility and versatility; she could also fling these particles at targets and trigger a dissolving effect, similar to corrosive acid, or coagulate them instantly.

Cristine Reyes played Molecula in the TV series. The Divas Impaktitas are the three right hand she-vampires of Valentina. They were created by the black stone, granting them immunity to the sun as well as crosses and crucifixes, though they could still be slain if something sharp like a stake is driven through their hearts.

Divina Demonica has the power to scream supersonic screams that could give severe trauma to those within her vicinity. She also demonstrates the ability to manipulate bats. Toy Master is a clown who has the power to control toys as well as other abilities that border on the realm of magic, allowing him to defy the fabric of reality by summoning corporeal objects out of nothing or generating an irritating sound by beating his drum, powerful enough to disorient even Darna.

He stole his magical powers from a gnome. Manananggal Ms. Luna is known to have a weakness over garlic and salt. Maggie Wilson played the role in the TV series, she later on took the role of Babaeng Linta in Deborah is a doctor by day and a manananggal by night. She often victimizes pregnant women. She becomes close to Ding; she holds a secret concerning Ding's past. In the original comics versionKobra was a female.

This form seems to give him the benefit of his snake form while giving him the ability to hold things with his clawed hands. He can also squish his opponents with his deadly coils. He was secretly Valentina's real father. He impregnated Roma ang Babaeng Impakta to bear him more of his serpentine race after seeing her in his cave and for the purpose of having an heir that will be more faithful to him than his other daughter, Valentina. He may be invulnerable to bullets but not from sharp objects.

Halili previously played Black Darna in Serpina is Kobra's daughter with Roma Babaeng Impakta. She also uses a powerful staff as her weapon. She even has a psychic rapport with Valentina that allows them to communicate telepathically. Shiro, played by Polo Ravalesis a local crime lord and the leader of the Bazooka Gang. Danilo Morgan Dr. Montgomery's grandson to reattach her wings. Liberty, played by Krista Kleineris Shiro's lieutenant and possible girlfriend.

Jackie Rice played Helga Demonyita, a powerful witch who preys on innocent children, in the TV series. She was possessed by the devil and like it she is closed red, has horns on her forehead and a long tail which she uses as a whip. She has a hatred over humanity. She uses voodoo dolls and can also control fire. She is invulnerable to bullets. She can also vanish into fire. Vladimir is a vampire who was played by Akihiro Sato in the TV series.

He appears to be a tall, dark and handsome man as described by Francesca. Like any vampire, he cannot stand the sun. Darna's original powers: enhanced levels of hand-to-hand fighting skills and excel in various forms of combat, flight, super strength, super speed and nigh-invulnerability.

In the retcon, the latest releases of the comic, this is due to her psionic background. Thus a form of telekinesis enhances her speed and strength and allows her flight. Her skin has a high level of invulnerability because of her species. Her psionic abilities also allow her to exercise limited psionic influence or telepathy.

For weapons, the ruby encrusted in the winged medallion on her helmet also augments her psionic abilities, allowing her to emit a powerful concussion blast and the medallions that make up her belt can be used like throwing stars shuriken. In the TV series, she also has heat vision, lent by the ruby. Narda transforms into Darna, and vice versa, by shouting out their respective names Darna to become Darna, Narda to become Narda. First, however, Narda has to swallow the white stone, which conveniently comes out of her mouth every time Darna changes back into herself.

However, it was not so in her comic incarnations, it started in the film Lipad, Darna, Lipad! In the version, Darna's bracers can produce flames when Darna focuses her energy enough and cause friction by brushing both braces against each other. The white stone is a small stone mineral that contains unknown properties that grants numerous abilities to whoever wears or swallows it.

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