So, even though with all other factors being equal, the lateral plane of recording on disc had the higher fidelity, it was decided to record vertically to produce higher-fidelity recordings on these new 'silent-surface' materials, for two reasons, the increase in fidelity and the incompatibility with home phonographs which, with their lateral-only playback systems would only produce silence from a vertically modulated disc. Even though the stylus size remained the same as consumer records at either 3 mils or 2.
Now, not only could the records not be played on home equipment due to incompatible recording format and speed, they wouldn't even fit on the player either, which suited the copyright holders. During the same period engineers got a bright idea. Split the signal into two parts, bass and treble, and record the treble on its own track near the edge of the disc in a lateral format so that there would be no high-frequency distortion, and then record the bass on its own track in a vertical fashion to get rid of the rumble.
Unfortunately, vertical grooves take up more space than lateral grooves; so when the bass track was full, starting halfway through the disc and ending up at the center, the treble track had a large amount of unused space at the end. The alternative was to record it at a wider pitch i. Another failed experiment in the late s and early '30s involved recording the left channel on the left side of the disc when held vertically with its edge facing the user and recording the right channel on the right side of the disc.
These were manufactured on twin film-company recording lathes which ran in perfect sync with one another with no variation, and were capable of, not only outside-in as well as inside-out recordings see Radio Programming Vinyl Sequence under Gramophone recordbut also counter-clockwise as well as conventional clockwise recording by mounting the cutting head wrong-way-out with a special adapter.
One master was recorded conventionally and the other was recorded counterclockwise, each master was run separately through the plating process, lined up to match, and subsequently mounted in a press.
This recording method was later used to record counter-clockwise discs by Mattel for one of its answers to the GAF Talking View Master in the mids. The dual-sided stereo disc was then played vertically, first in a system that featured two tonearms on the same post facing one another, and later on in an offset system where one tonearm was placed conventionally and the other tonearm was placed opposite, i. But, even with playing the disc vertically in a rotating clamp, the same trouble was observed with keeping the two tonearms in their respective synchronous revolutions.
The system was developed further however and adapted so that a single tonearm could play one side of a record or the other in jukeboxes of the late s and early '40s. Five years later, Bell Labs was experimenting with a two-channel Lateral-Vertical system, where the left channel was recorded laterally and the right channel was recorded vertically, still utilizing a standard 3-mil RPM groove, over three times larger than the modern LP stylus of the late 20th Century.
The trouble with that was, once again, all the low-frequency rumble was in the left channel and all the high-frequency distortion was in the right channel. InEmory Cook —who already had become famous by designing new feedback disk-cutter heads to improve sound from tape to vinyl, took the two-channel high-fidelity system described above and developed a somewhat misnamed "binaural" record out of it, which consisted of the same two separate channels cut into two separate groups of grooves running next to each other as described above, i.
Each groove needed its own monophonic needle and cartridge on its own branch of tonearm, and each needle was connected to a separate amplifier and speaker.
This setup was intended to give a demonstration at a New York audio fair of Cook's cutter heads rather than to sell the record; but soon afterward, the demand for such recordings and the equipment to play it grew, and Cook Records began to produce such records commercially.
Cook recorded a vast array of sounds, ranging from railroad sounds to thunderstorms. The first stereo recordings using magnetic tape were made in Germany in the early s using Magnetophon recorders. Around recordings were made of various symphonies, most of which were seized by the Red Army at the end of World War II. The recordings were of relatively high fidelitythanks to the discovery of AC bias. A recording of Anton Bruckner 's Symphony No.
In Februarythe label also recorded a performance of Berlioz ' masterpiece The Damnation of Faust by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Charles Munchthe success of which led to the practice of regularly recording sessions in stereo. In the UK, Decca Records began recording sessions in stereo in mid, and by that time even smaller labels in the U. The additional cost of stereo sound must be weighed against the economy of the time.
In addition, the price of the stereophonic recorder upon which to play the records may have been equal to, or greater than, the cost of a new car. However, audiophiles, with little or no regard for the cost, bought them and the players anyway, [ citation needed ] and stereophonic sound came to at least a select few living rooms of the mids. In Novemberthe small Audio Fidelity Records label released the first mass-produced stereophonic disc. Sidney Frey, founder and president, had Westrex engineers, owners of one of the two rival stereo disk-cutting systems, cut a disk for release before any of the major record labels could do so.
Also in DecemberBel LP Recordsanother small label, produced its own stereophonic demonstration disc on multicolored vinyl so that stereo dealers would have more than one choice for demonstration. With the supplied special turntables featuring a clear platter lighted from underneath to show off the color as well as the sound, the stunt worked even better for Bel Canto, whose roster of jazz, easy listening and lounge musicpressed onto their trademark Caribbean-blue vinyl sold well throughout and early into When Audio Fidelity released its stereophonic demonstration disc, there was no affordable magnetic cartridge on the market capable of playing it.
By the end of March, the company had four more stereo LPs available, interspersed with several Bel Canto releases. Although both monaural as well as stereo LP records were manufactured for the first ten years of stereo on disc, the major record labels issued their last monaural albums inrelegating the format to 45 RPM singles, flexidiscs and radio promotional materials which continued until The earliest approach to stereo then commonly called "binaural" radio used two separate transmissions to individually send the left and right audio channels, which required listeners to operate two receivers in order to hear the stereo effect.
In Franklin M. Doolittle was issued U. That same year Doolittle began a year-long series of test transmissions, using his mediumwave broadcasting station, WPAJ in New Haven, Connecticut, which was temporarily authorized to concurrently operate a second transmitter.
Left and right audio was distributed to the two transmitters by dual microphones, placed about 7 inches 18 cm apart in order to mimic the distance between a person's ears. In it was reported that additional experimental stereo transmissions had been conducted in Berlin, Germany, again with two mediumwave transmissions.
On June 12, a similar experimental broadcast using two stations was conducted in Holland, which was mistakenly thought to be the first in Europe and possibly the world. The revived dual transmitter tests were of limited success, because they still required two receivers, and with AM-FM pairings the sound quality of the AM transmissions were generally significantly inferior to the FM signals.
It was eventually determined that the bandwidth assigned to individual FM stations was sufficient to support stereo transmissions from a single transmitter. In Sweden, Televerket invented a different stereo broadcasting system called the Compander System. It had a high level of channel separation and could even be used to broadcast two separate mono signals — for example for language studies with two languages at the same time.
But tuners and receivers with the pilot-tone system were sold so people in southern Sweden could listen to, for example, Danish radio. At last Sweden the Televerket decided to start broadcasting in stereo according to the pilot-tone system in But stereo radio was delayed in Sweden because of the two competing systems. For AM broadcasting very few stations transmit in stereo, in part due to the limited audio quality of the majority of receivers, and the scarcity of AM stereo receivers. DAB is one of the Digital Radio formats that is used to broadcast Digital Audio over terrestrial broadcast networks or satellite networks.
After the advent of FM stereo broadcasts ina small number of music-oriented TV shows were broadcast with stereo sound using a process called simulcastingin which the audio portion of the show was carried over a local FM stereo station.
In the s, satellite delivery of both television and radio programs made this fairly tedious process of synchronization unnecessary. The BBC made extensive use of simulcasting between and around After that it was used for many other music programmes, live and recorded, including the annual BBC Promenade concerts and the Eurovision Song Contest. Cable TV systems delivered many stereo programs utilizing this method for many years until prices for MTS stereo modulators dropped.
One of the first stereo cable stations was The Movie Channelthough the most popular cable TV station that drove up usage of stereo simulcasting was MTV. Japanese television began multiplex stereo sound broadcasts in and regular transmissions with stereo sound came in West Germany 's second television network, ZDFbegan offering stereo programs in These are sometimes used to provide two mono sound channels that are in different languages, rather than stereo.
Multichannel television sound is used mainly in the Americas. Dolby Digital is the audio standard used for Digital TV in North America, with the capability for anywhere between 1 and 6 discrete channels. InThe New York Times reported, "What has prompted the [television] industry to embark on establishing high-fidelity [sound] standards now, according to engineering executives involved in the project, is chiefly the rapid march of the new television technologies, especially those that are challenging broadcast television, such as the video disk.
This uses two parallel omnidirectional microphones some distance apart, capturing time-of-arrival stereo information as well Album) some level amplitude difference information — especially if employed in close proximity to the sound source s.
At a distance of about 60 cm 24 inthe time delay time-of-arrival difference for a signal reaching the first microphone and then the other one from the side is approximately 1. If you increase the distance between the microphones, you effectively decrease the pickup angle. At a 70 cm 28 in distance, it is approximately equivalent to the pickup angle of the near-coincident ORTF setup.
A difference in levels of 18 dB 16 to 20 dB is needed for hearing the direction of a loudspeaker. The sonic image produced is realistic. The second microphone is generally a variety of cardioid, although Alan Blumlein described the usage of an omnidirectional transducer in his original patent. This configuration produces a completely mono-compatible signal and, if the Mid and Side signals are recorded rather than the matrixed Left and Rightthe stereo width can be manipulated after the recording has taken place.
This makes it especially useful for film-based projects. These techniques combine the principles of both A-B and X-Y coincident pair techniques.
It is noteworthy that all spaced microphone arrays and all near-coincident techniques use a spacing of at least 17 cm or more. Although the recorded signals are generally intended for playback over stereo loudspeakers, reproduction over headphones can provide remarkably good results, depending on the microphone arrangement.
In the course of restoration or remastering of monophonic records, various techniques of "pseudo-stereo", "quasi-stereo", or "rechanneled stereo" have been used to create the impression that the sound was originally recorded in stereo.
These techniques first involved hardware methods see Duophonic or, more recently, a combination of hardware and software. Multitrack Studio, from Bremmers Audio Design The Netherlands uses special filters to achieve a pseudo-stereo effect: the "shelve" filter directs low frequencies to the left channel and high frequencies to the right channel, and the comb filter adds a small delay in signal timing between the two channels, a delay barely noticeable by ear, [note 2] but contributing to an effect of "widening" original "flattiness" of mono recording.
According to Sweetwater Sound"As the cost of processing technology dropped manufacturers were able to include dual processors in equipment. One of these processors could be dedicated to each input allowing two different effects to be used at once one on each input. These processors could often have their control signals ganged together so they would act as one true stereo processor.
The special pseudo-stereo circuit — invented by Kishii and Noro, from Japan — was patented in the United States in with already previously issued patents for similar devices. Some critics have expressed concern about the use of these methods.
Engineers make a technical distinction between "binaural" and "stereophonic" recording. Of these, binaural recording is analogous to stereoscopic photography.
In binaural recording, a pair of microphones is put inside a model of a human head that includes external ears and ear canals; each microphone is where the eardrum would be. The recording is then played back through headphones, so that each channel is presented independently, without mixing or crosstalk. Thus, each of the listener's eardrums is driven with a replica of the auditory signal it would have experienced at the recording location. The result is an accurate duplication of the auditory spatiality that would have been experienced by the listener had he or she been in the same place as the model head.
Because of the inconvenience of wearing headphones, true binaural recordings have remained laboratory and audiophile curiosities. However "loudspeaker-binaural" listening is possible with Ambiophonics. Numerous early two-track-stereo reel-to-reel tapes as well as several experimental stereo disc formats of the early s branded themselves as binaural, however they were merely different incarnations of the above-described stereo or two-track mono recording methods lead vocal or instrument isolated on one channel and orchestra on the other sans lead.
Stereophonic sound attempts to create an illusion of location for various sound sources voices, instruments, etc. The recording engineer's goal is usually to create a stereo "image" with localization information. When a stereophonic recording is heard through loudspeaker systems rather than headphoneseach ear, of course, hears sound from both speakers.
The audio engineer may, and often does, use more than two microphones sometimes many more and may mix them down to two tracks in ways that exaggerate the separation of the instruments, in order to compensate for the mixture that occurs when listening via speakers. Descriptions of stereophonic sound tend to stress the ability to localize the position of each instrument in space, but this would only be true in a carefully engineered and installed system, where speaker placement and room acoustics are taken into account.
In reality, many playback systems, such as all-in-one boombox units and the like, are incapable of recreating a realistic stereo image. Originally, LP the late s and s, stereophonic sound was marketed as seeming "richer" or "fuller-sounding" than monophonic sound, but these sorts of claims were and are highly subjective, and again, dependent on the equipment used to reproduce the sound. In fact, poorly recorded or reproduced stereophonic sound can sound far worse than well done monophonic sound.
Nevertheless, many record companies released stereo "demonstration" records to help promote stereo. These records often included instructions for setting up a stereo system, 'balancing' the speakers, and a variety of ambient recordings to show off the stereo effect. In effect, an equilateral triangle is formed, with the angle between the two speakers around 60 degrees as seen from the listener's point of view. Disc-O-Tech 2 however, specifically focused on blending a number of their disco releases into a non-stop medley.
As no 7-inch 18 cm acetates could be found, a inch 25 cm blank was used. Rodriguez told him that for it to be viable, the level would have to be increased considerably. Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but also a wider overall dynamic range distinction between loud and soft as well. It also meant that these extended versions being created by Moulton could be given to fellow DJs and tested within a nightclub environment to see how well it worked the dancefloor, with adjustments subsequently made to the remix.
Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would instantly become industry practice. This would perhaps have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, and as the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would likely have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually.
Ironically, Moulton's mix of Downing would be eventually released by Chess Records for sale to the general public, but only on a standard-issue 7-inch record for sale in October An acetate twelve-inch test pressing single hailed as being a first by Moulton was South Shore Commission " Free Man ".
In many cases there would be no logos, and many contained handwritten text only. Test pressings being tried out at discos were reported on in Moulton's weekly column in Billboard during early April Mentioned in his Billboard column in mid April as being 'out soon',  a known 10" acetate had a date of 8 Maywith twelve-inch acetates and promos also appearing at some stage. A sometimes mentioned candidate among these first acetates is Moment of Truth "So Much For Love",   but this effort was commercially released a year later, the band having been signed to Salsoul Records in June and the song only appearing in disco charts at the end of July of that year.
Many of the above disco era timelines were driven by the DJ necessity to give a better nightclub dancefloor experience to patrons, and as the scene grew, it began to be chronicled in trade press publications such as Billboard and Record World.
Tom Moulton began to write for the former from 26 October in the Disco Action column  which changed name as time went onwhile Vince Aletti wrote Disco File in the latter from November The DJs would increasingly be expected to report back, much like with radio, with what songs worked on their dancefloors to the record company and mixers such as Moulton and others so that a strategic decision would be made whether to further fine tune or remix the music to enhance the reaction, typically a new edit would be repeatedly created, pressed on acetates and supplied until a good response was had from nightclubs, so creating a buzz which would drive the eventual commercial sales.
Record companies would also supply limited stocks of these dubs or promos to key DJ record shops in New York from such as Colony Records, Downstairs Records and Melody Song Shops, with reports of sales and interest being fed back to the trade press so that they could report trends in the scene, and to record companies as further proof of their marketing and promotional efforts.
Record pools were established, the first in New York in June for better distribution of pre-release records to bona fide DJs as record labels began to appreciate their role in breaking and selling records. Although primarily pressed for quality control of both the sound and physical attributes before a large run of vinyl is made, when compared to an acetate, test pressings vinyl issues would be far more durable, much more likely to be funded by the record label than the mixer, potentially would have printed centre labels, and are possibly pressed in larger numbers than acetates to include them in promotional runs if the records were deemed suitable for play.
These were also much less likely to have picture sleeves, usually depending instead on a generic plain cover. Twelve-inch acetates for this single were pressed in April and was subsequently produced as twelve-inch vinyl promotional singles with typed labels in June. This was released commercially on 7-inch in May This was issued in mid February and was subtitled 'Specially Prepared For Disco Use', but it held same length versions of the selected album tracks.
The very first wide-scale record company promotional twelve-inch single according to Moulton considering his then position with Billboard at the time as disco product reviewer, and that most of the very limited inch records up to this point involved his own remixeswas Frankie Valli " Swearin' To God ", issued by Private Stock Records in June with a min running time.
The album cut was minutes in length. Although Private Stock distributed nationally, these 10 and inch pressings may have been limited to New York DJs only. Barrabas "Mellow Blow" became the first 33rpm Atlantic promo to be released in July,    but eventually commercially only on an 7" in September. Warner-Spector 's Calhoon " Do You Wanna Dance, Dance, Dance" had a inch acetate from May,   given out as a one sided inch vinyl promo in the same month,  and as a inch promo in July As time went on, a growing number of record labels became aware of the inch format as a useful promotional tool, the benefits it gave for sound fidelity, and started to issue product in response.
However, into early none considered them at first as suitable for sale to the general public. Companies came to appreciate the place of the nightclub and how they helped to break a record, but still considered an extended remix to ultimately facilitate sales of the original 7-inch single version or the artist's album, and not as a sale item in its own right.
The costs for the format were also still prohibitive; one label reported inch singles cost more than it did to press an album. However, demand was being driven by record shops, particularly those serving disco product, with feedback from buyers.
It was particularly noticed that many of the previously released promotional inch singles were attracting a premium in the resellers marketplace, with them in some cases changing hands for the price of an album. The first song found on a twelve-inch single commercially issued for public purchase from the disco era onwards was " Ten Percent " by Double Exposure on Salsoul Records in mid May The seven-inch edit had been released a month earlier but sales of this were slow.
A clutch of releases including Jakki "Sun This was issued with a promotional sticker stating "we have a very BIG single for you".
The sides were the same lengths as the versions on his Naturally album. Although as previously mentioned regarding the Jamaican dub influence on the use of inch acetates, the inch single was only born once imports of US disco singles were established from onwards.
The issued twelve-inch-single trend spread to Jamaica quickly, where hundreds of reggae singles were pressed in this format, and commercially issued as " discomixes " to catch on the disco hype. The Jamaican reggae and US disco trend also hit London, reggae being popular along with uptempo forms of music such as Motown and northern soul, the seven-inch record being the primary medium in the early s for this material, with the UK following up a little later than the US with inch singles.
The reasons were different, the UK jocks did not have the same need to extend records like the US pioneers who wanted longer records for the dancefloor. Although the use of larger temporary singles primarily 10" started from the Jamaican influence and before such as the pre- Beatles band The Quarrymen with the one-off " In Spite of All the Danger " inacetates were also used by the record labels to quality control the eventual product, and not for servicing single songs or exclusive remixes, and then not in the inch format.
The usage of the inch vinyl as a medium followed the US promos introduction but was initially seen as a marketing tool to help promote an artist more uniquely. Another emphasis with the new format was the louder sound and better audio quality afforded to the release.
It therefore was not exclusively used for disco songs but included pop artists, however it eventually came into its own in the later s with the lengthened versions of US disco songs being promoted in the UK. Atlantic Records was an early front runner with two inch promo singles: Ben E. These early issues usually containing the original 7-inch edit, It took a little later for lengthened versions to begin appearing, with s UK club DJ Greg Wilson recalling promotional inch product being mailed out from AugustLalo Schifrin "Jaws" being his first one, which was in extended form.
Bush and the latter two acts had Gerry Shury production involvement, and these two releases were issued by John Abbey 's Contempo Records from 8 Octoberthese songs having been previously released in either 7-inch format or as album tracks.
The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch records made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light without having to listen while dropping and re-dropping the stylus to find the right point. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in the "break points" on the discs' surfaces that can clearly be seen by the naked eye, which further eases the "cueing" task a club DJs tone-arm cartridge will be heavily weighted and mild wear will seldom spoil the sound quality.
Many DJ-only remix servicessuch as Ultimix and Hot Tracks, issued sets with deliberately visualised groove separations i. Motown were one of the first to "eye cue" their 12" disco discs, giving DJs the track's BPM and info on the exact length of the various sections of the song - one of the earliest examples of a record company recognising how important the DJ was to become by making their product more user-friendly. By '79, and very much with the DJ in mind, 12"s such as Diana Ross "The Boss" were being purposely intro'd with mix-friendly drum beats.
Following the lead of the US club DJs, using inch extended versions in the UK as a mixing tool was advocated particularly by James Hamilton of the Record Mirror music weekly paper, with him notably indicating the approximate BPM of late s disco tracks Philadelphia Experiment (Main Mix) - The Philadelphia Experiment - Remixed (Vinyl. Increasingly in the s, many pop and even rock artists released twelve-inch singles that included longer, extended, or remixed versions of the actual track being promoted by the single.
These versions were frequently labeled with the parenthetical designation "inch version", "inch mix", "extended remix", "dance mix", or "club mix". Later musical styles took advantage of this new format and recording levels on vinyl twelve-inch "maxi-singles" have steadily increased, culminating in the extremely loud or "hot" cuts of drum and bass records of the s and early s. Many record labels produced mainly twelve-inch singles in addition to albums during the s, lots being mostly regular A and B-sides, not remixes.
Certain labels such as Factory Recordsonly ever released a handful of seven-inch singles. It was somewhat helped by the fact that Factory did not release a seven-inch version of the single untilfive years after the single was originally released as a twelve-inch-only release.
Besides, the seven-inch version that was released was not the original version released on twelve-inch, but a re-recording called "Blue Monday ". Singles have followed wider vinyl format sales, withstanding competition from the s and 70s reel-to-reel tapethe 8-track cartridgeand the compact cassette formats.
The widespread popularity of Sony's Walkman was a key factor that contributed to vinyl's lessening usage in the s. Vinyl records experienced a sudden decline in popularity between andwhen the major label distributors restricted their return policies, which retailers had been relying on to maintain and swap out stocks of relatively unpopular titles. Record companies also deleted many vinyl titles from production and distribution, or simply did not make inch singles for many pop artists, further undermining the availability of the format and leading to the closure of pressing plants.
This rapid decline in the availability of records accelerated the format's decline in popularity, and is seen by some as a deliberate ploy to make consumers switch to CDs which were at the time more profitable for the record companies,     and more latterly, streaming.
A growing number of DJs eventually began to use CDJs for their convenience, and later along with a crossover period where turntables could be combined with laptops and used with encoded 12 inch discs and DJ software, which could manipulate MP3 or WAV music files but still allow for a turntablism experience. DJ controller all-in-one decks have in later times become the norm which take up less space than a pair of turntables, reducing DJs dependence on the physical format even further.
There is however, a dedicated DJ sub-community that maintain their usage of the format, with retro styled 'vinyl only' nights being a unique selling point. Also, there are some new titles being pressed on the format and available at physical record shops, although many sales take place online. There is also a notable second-hand trade business on online sale and auction marketplaces for collectors, of which some titles are still in demand and can be of some value.
The term "twelve-inch" usually refers to a vinyl single with one or more extended mixes or remixes of a song. In the mid-to-late s, popular artists often used the twelve-inch format to include extra songs that were not included on albums, just as a seven-inch single often included a B-side song that was not found on full-length albums. Blige also appeared on The View alongside Maxwell during its premiere week on September 9,to discuss their joint tour and theme song.
A trailer was released online with Blige singing a cover of Bruce Springsteen 's " American Skin " to a bewildered Clinton. The exchange received mixed and negative reaction on social media. Two weeks later, a studio version, this time featuring a verse from American rapper Kendrick Lamar was released online. On April 28,her thirteenth studio album, Strength of a Womanwas released.
Blige among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the Universal fire. Blige's My Lifedirected by Vanessa Roth. InBlige made her acting debut on the sitcom The Jamie Foxx Showplaying the apparently southern Ola Mae, a preacher's daughter who wanted to sing more than gospel music.
Her father was portrayed by Ronald Isley of the Isley Brothers. That same year, Blige made a cameo on the Lifetime network series, Strong Medicine Album) playing the role of Simone Fellows.
Blige's character was the lead singer of a band who was sick, but would not seek treatment. InBlige was featured in a superhero web cartoon in junction with Stan Lee.
Blige used the cartoon as part of her performance while on her Mary Show Tour. The play chronicled the experiences of death row inmates. Blige portrayed Sunny Jacobs, a woman who spent 20 years in prison for a crime she did not commit. Blige later dropped out of the role due to financial issues and the role was subsequently recast with Dominican American actress Zoe Saldana as Simone in Ninareleased in In FebruaryBlige guest-starred on Ghost Whispererin an episode called "Mean Ghost", as the character Jackie Boyd, the school's cheerleader coach grieving for the death of her brother and affected by the ghost of a dead cheerleader.
The episode features many of Blige's songs. In AugustBlige was a guest star on Entouragein the role of herself, as a client of Ari Gold 's agency. In MayMary made a guest appearance on 30 Rockas an artist recording a benefit song for a kidney. Blige played Justice Charlier, the owner of a Sunset Strip gentlemen's club. Production began in May and the film was released in June She played Dr. Betty Shabazzthe widow of Malcolm X. The film premiered in February InBlige starred in the period drama film Mudbound directed by Dee Rees.
Playing Florence Jackson, the matriarch of her family,  she received praise such as Variety 's review: "Mary J. As she was also nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song with Taura Stinson and Raphael Saadiqshe became the first person nominated for an Academy Award for acting and original song in the same year. Init was announced that Blige was cast as Sherry Elliot in Scream: Resurrectionthe third season of the slasher television series Scream.
Blige played a leading role in the horror film Body Cam. Blige married her manager, Martin "Kendu" Isaacs, on December 7, Blige has dealt with drug and alcohol addictionand has been sober for several years. InBlige launched her own record label, Matriarch Records, distributed through Interscope, and in mid, discovered girl group Just'Us, making the group the first ladies of the label.
Blige says "These are my little Mary's; they each remind me of myself at different points in my life. The first Melodies collection featured four styles with a total of 20 color options.
Each style represented a specific facet of Blige's life. Essence magazine reported that in the spring of"Melodies by MJB" extended their collection to offer more styles. Blige's production company, along with William Morris Endeavor, is also working on several TV and film projects. The perfume broke HSN records by selling 65, bottles during its premiere. All over the world, that recipe dominates today's charts. African American scholars have noted the implications of Blige's presentation and representation of black womanhood and femininity in the typically male-dominated and centric sphere of hip hop.
Using her personal experiences and struggles with her family as source material for her songs, Blige refutes notions of black female hypersexuality by "imploring women to love and empower themselves through both autonomy and intimacy. With particular attention on her single " Real Love ", critics note how the song is "a performative text, declaratively demand[ing] recognition of Blige's full humanity and, more broadly, that of hip-hop-generation women.
Blige has received notable awards and achievements. InKamala Harristhe first Black and South Asian female Vice President-elect on a major party walked out to " Work That " at the Democratic National Conventioncampaign events including her own presidential campaignand her victory speech.
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Bass-I06 - No Artist - Sound Pool (Deep House / Progressive House) (CD), Strgc3 - No Artist - Sound Pool (Deep House / Progressive House) (CD), The Edge Of Heaven - George Michael, Wham! - George Michael Часть 1-2: Коллекция альбомов (CDr), Selfish Ways - Blind Rhino - Accused (CD, Album), Intro - AC/DC - Rock N Roll Damnation (Vinyl, LP), Angels We Have Heard On High - Klangwald - X-Mas Chillout (File, Album), Mach Keine Faxen - DJ Wizzl - The German Kingz (CD), II. Allegretto Vivace E Sempre Scherzando - Beethoven*, Le Quatuor Hongrois* - Quatuors À Cordes N°, Lheure De Salir - La Main - Lheure De Salir (File, Album), Serenata Maldita - Rudy Ventura Y Su Conjunto - Serenata Maldita (Vinyl), Aquarium - Nurse With Wound - Gyllensköld, Geijerstam And I At Rydbergs (CD), Stephan Massimo - Die Wanderhure - Best Of (CD), II. Nocturne - Rossini*, Chopin*, Nigel Kennedy, National Philharmonic Orchestra, Richard Bonynge -, Herjeemerschnee - Johannes Kletschka - Su Is Es Und Su Woar´sch (CD)