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Delivery times may vary, especially during peak periods and will depend on when your payment clears - opens in a new window or tab. Please allow additional time if international delivery is subject to customs processing. Free postage. Start of add to list layer. One of the fillets weighed on average 55g thus giving an average yield of 44 percent. Using the table below, the brine-ometer salinometer reading would be close to 40 degrees. This concentration has been chosen mainly based on analytical data available on the percentage of salt in several batches of smoked fish, mainly marlin, produced and sold on the local market.
The salt level of this product is perceived as generally satisfactory by the local consumers. Strong brine above 80 brine-ometer degrees would reduce immersion time but has the disadvantages that, after the fish are dried, salt can crystallize on the surface of the skin in unattractive white patches Torry Research Station, To improve flavour and impart an attractive colour to the finished product, molasses was added to the brine.
Table 1. Brining The fillets were carefully immersed in the brine tank and left for a period of 15 minutes. Based on the thickness of the mackerel fillet, about 1 cm on average, and the experience of the operator, 15 minutes was deemed sufficient for the brining process. Salt penetrates fish easier in places that are open or cut than through the skin, hence the short brining time used.
A stop watch was used to time the process. The production of liquid smoke involves the drying of hardwood sawdust to optimal moisture level, burning the sawdust to generate the smoke, condensing the smoke with water, phase separation, filtration and containerization.
The healthy and flavourful parts of the smoke are water soluble whereas the unhealthy carcinogenic chemical compounds known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH and other impurities, are not. These unhealthy components are filtered and removed. The fillets were laid with the skin facing downward on the stainless steel trays on the rack and placed in the smoking kiln.
This allows the choice of an appropriate cycle based on the type of fish and the sizes of fillets or loins to be smoked and the fat content. The drying period is used to toughen the skin and prevent subsequent breakage Torry Research Station, It also significantly reduces the moisture content of the fish to improve its keeping quality.
The drip liquid - brine and fish juice - is collected in a tray below to prevent it dirtying the floor of the kiln. Packaging The smoked fillets were packaged in polystyrene trays, five fillets per tray and wrapped with cling film. Filleting of mackerels Figure 2. Mackerel fillets immersed in brine Figure 3. Racking of fillets Figure 4. Smoked fillets packaged in polystyrene trays Sensory assessment On the next day the smoked products were distributed to different employees selected from the processing plant and also to all the Fish Inspectors working with the Competent Authority.
Each assessor was given a form Appendix 1 which was designed to rate the sensory quality of the products based on the levels of saltiness, their appreciation of the flavour, the appearance as defined by the colour and their rating of the juiciness or dryness.
Shelf life assessment based on microbial quality and histamine development. A second batch of products was produced using the same formulation and packed in the same manner.
This time the products were used for the shelf life test at ambient temperature and under chill condition. The product qualities were assessed based on the microbial count as an indication of spoilage and testing of histamine level. A total of nineteen questionnaires were returned following the tasting and evaluation. As mentioned earlier the aim of the sensory evaluation was to assess if consumers in general would find this product acceptable, therefore giving an indication of success if placed on the market.
Below are the results of the sensory assessment extracted from the nineteen respondents to the questionnaires. Table 2. Only 10 percent found it slightly salty whereas nobody found it unacceptable due to too much salt.
The brine concentration was estimated at around 40 degrees on the brine-ometer g salt per litre and analysis of the smoked fish revealed a concentration of 1.
The use of salt as an ingredient in smoked fish is mainly for imparting taste and flavour. Although salt has an inhibitory effect on the growth of micro organisms, at a level of 1. Preservation of the product depends largely on the synergistic effect of the antibacterial properties of chemicals found in the smoke and the chill storage temperature.
Table 3. The flavour and odour of a product are highly influential factors for its acceptance by consumers. The flavour is imparted by the presence of compounds found in the smoke. Table 4. It will attract the consumer to at least taste the product, whereas a dull and unattractive colour will usually have the opposite effect.
As can be seen from the table, the responses from the assessors were very positive with 18 of the 19 95 percent rating the product attractive. Table 5. This characteristic will vary from consumer to consumer depending on what extent they appreciate the softness of smoked fish.
The drying phase of the smoking cycle is aimed at reducing the amount of moisture in the product and the smoking method used had a good control over the drying period. In general the response from the assessors was good as only one assessor 5 percent rated the product too dry. The organisms mentioned are used mainly as indicators of product quality rather than for safety. In effect, microbial quality indicators are spoilage organisms whose increasing numbers results in loss of product quality.
Jays Table 6. The storage period was stretched to at least 96 hours 4 days with samples tested approximately every 24 hours. Although the temperature was ideal for growth of mesophilic bacteria, the bactericidal property of the chemicals in the smoke, such as the organic acids and aldehydes, and the reduced moisture content in the fish from the drying effect during the smoking process have had an inhibitory effect on bacterial multiplication.
The APC increased by almost 2 log counts between 24 hours to 96 hours. The rate of multiplication increased more significantly between 72 and 96 hours where an increase of more than one log cycle was observed. It was noted that the product was not yet decomposed at the end of this period. The growth of yeast and mould increased tenfold 1 log from 1. The growth pattern suggests that the logarithmic growth phase was between 24 to 48 hours after which the organisms entered a stationary phase.
Apart from having an acceptable organoleptic quality, it is important that the products possess a reasonably good keeping quality when kept under chill conditions. The bacterial count remained uniform for samples tested on the 25th and 29th day and finally an increase in the sample tested on the 32nd day. Although produced under identical condition, the level of contamination with micro organisms of the individual fish fillets could have been different.
This was affected by manipulation of the fillet during preparation and also during packaging of the finished products. The count of yeasts and moulds increased exponentially, noting that on day 1 it was almost undetected and reached 1. At that time there was visible growth of mould on the products and the growth tended to be more intense at the point where there was direct contact between the plastic film covering the trays and the smoked fillets. The absence of E. Result of histamine analysis Mackerel is one of the species belonging to the scombridae family, which is well known to be histamine formers due to the large quantity of histidine found in their muscle tissue.
Histamine is produced by the decarboxylation of the histidine in the muscle of this group under conditions of temperature abuse. Histidine decarboxilase is produced by bacteria such as Morganella morganii, Proteus spp, and Klebsiella spp. Sufficient levels of histamine may be produced without the product being organoleptically unacceptable, with the result that scombroid poisoning may be contracted from both fresh and organoleptically spoiled fish.
Jay, IM method. Tests were done on the first day of production and eventually after one month storage at chill temperature. The scores for level of salt, flavour and colour were all 90 percent and above, whereas only the degree of dryness was rated lower. Several assessors verbally expressed their satisfaction with regards to the quality of the product, especially the taste. This result shows that there are potential markets for hot smoked mackerel in the Seychelles, and this needs to be exploited.
Better information can be obtained with regards to consumer preference by doing more trials based on varying the level of salt and the length of smoking process.
However one of the most important factors to consider would be the cost benefit of such a venture. Although this had not been one of the objectives of this project, any commercial venture will have to firstly assess the cost of production in relation to the benefits to be expected to make the project commercially viable.
The seasonal nature of Indian mackerel in the Seychelles is an important factor that will influence a potential processor to concentrate on the smoking of other types of fish. The shelf life test performed shows that the products should not be left for more than two days at ambient temperature, unless they are to be consumed within Saltwater - Various - Ministry Of Sound: Chilled 1991-2010 (CD) period, as there was substantial increase in both the APC and the yeast and mould count.
These organisms are more of spoilage types having a direct effect on the shelf life but not necessarily having public health significance. Spoilage with mould growth, however, was visible after 10 days storage despite the fact that the APC count 1.
It is strongly recommended that a further trial is done to include the testing of the final product for levels of benzo a pyrene, one of the carcinogenic PAHs. The maximum level for this contaminant is set at 5. Assessing the sensory attributes can also be extended at market level to obtain the opinion of the general public considering that the rating given by the small group of assessors, especially from the processing plant, who took part in this exercise, may be perceived as bias and also not a representative sample.
The use of vacuum packaging can also be tried in an effort to increase the shelf life by reducing spoilage with aerobic microorganisms. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuff. FAO, Rome. FAO yearbook of fishery statistics. Rome: FAO. Modern Food Microbiology. Marianski, A. The Amazing Mullet,Chapter 5, pp Bookmagic LLC. Seychelles Fishing Authority. Annual Reports, — Provide your rating by inserting a tick next to the characteristic you select for each criterion.
Criteria Assessed Characteristic of each criteria being assessed Saltiness Acceptable level of Slightly salty but Too salty, unacceptable salt acceptable Flavour Pleasant odour and Slight odour and No odour and flavour of flavour, typical of flavour of smoked smoked fish smoked fish fish Colour Light brown, Slightly dull Dark brown, over attractive smoked, unattractive Juiciness Very juicy Medium Too dry Thank you for your honest opinion. This has led to the development of a preliminary sketch of a smoking kiln tested with success within an EU-funded programme.
This cooperative effort was materialized in the development and testing of the FAO-Thiaroye fish smoking system. The data reveal that the end-products are of better quality in terms of sensory texture, appearance, taste and chemical attributes.
The type of firewood also significantly influences the level of benzo a pyrene. Photo 1 et Figure 1. Figures 4 et 5. Photos 8, 9 et Photos 11 et Tableau 1. Photos 17 et Tableau 2. Tableau 3. Tableau 6. Photos 19 et Codex Alimentarius. Doornaert, B. Hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques HAPs. Ekomy, A.
In report and papers presented at the second workshop on fish technology, utilization and quality assurance in Africa. Agadir, Morocco, 24—28 November ISSN Assessment of the effects of the smoke generation processes and of smoking parameters on the organoleptic perception, the levels of the most odorant compounds and PAH content of smoked salmon fillets.
In Report and papers presented at the second workshop on fish technology, utilization and quality assurance in Africa. Agadir, Morocco, 24—8 November Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked meat products and smoke flavouring food additives. Journal of Chromatography B With such a scenario there has been a need to maximize by-catch utilization both as sources of income and protein.
Prawn fishing is associated with high by-catch; most industrial fishing operators would prefer to discard at sea to reduce fishing costs. The prawn fishery in Tanzania is conducted by both artisanal and commercial fishers. Having such a high market value inside and outside Tanzania, the prawn fishery has attracted a number of industrial fishing vessels, which in turn produce a significant amount of by-catch.
Results indicate that exploitation of prawn resources is associated with fishing of small, medium and large non-target fish that are considered as by-catch.
Results obtained from 30 fishing trips showed that the average percentage of by-catch was above 75 percent with a ratio of to that of the target species prawns. The fish were mostly small, with an average weight of g. Major species of big fish commonly encountered in the catch were sharks, rays, emperors, groupers and mackerels, while the prawns were dominated by white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus : over 67 percent of shrimp composition. Other species included giant black shrimp Penaeus monodon and brown shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros.
The study generally recommends production of speciality fish products as a means to add value to low priced by-catch and hence increase utilization alternatives.
Main challenges for by-catch utilization were found to be price alteration within fishing cycles in respective months new and full moon. It was generally revealed that there were possible ways of utilizing this high percentage of prawn by-catch so as to reduce the fishing cost and improve the socio-economic and livelihood of many coastal communities. Artisanal fishermen as well as industrial fisheries catch shrimp in Tanzania.
The artisanal fishery operates from small dugout canoes and small-planked boats, which are powered mainly by pedals, poles, oars and sails. Few fishers also use boats with outboard engines. Industrial or commercial prawn fishery in Tanzania is based on four major species: the white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus formerly known as Penaeus indicusgiant black shrimp P. The industrial prawn fishery is associated Saltwater - Various - Ministry Of Sound: Chilled 1991-2010 (CD) high catch of non-target fin fish species, including snapper, kingfish, shark, rays, small clupeids, lobsters, sardines and sea cucumbers.
Most of these are consumed locally while a few high valued species such as sharks, kingfish and lobsters are exported. Taking into consideration the fishing costs it has been difficult for industrial prawn fishing vessels to keep by-catch on board, most prefer to discard it at sea although fisheries regulations of Tanzania require all by-catch to be landed at a specified site.
However, fishing vessels conducting daily fishing close to major cities could easily land by-catch at justifiable cost.
Moreover, maximizing utilization of by-catch would ensure food security in the country and hence fulfil Millennium development goals. Suluda pointed out limited chill or cold storage capacity and low price paid for by-catch as set-backs for by-catch utilization.
The benefit accrued from by-catch has failed to override costs for storing and transportation. The main challenge facing by-catch utilization in Tanzania is that most fish caught as by-catch is low priced when sold raw and hence provision of means to add value would shift the curve to low cost and high benefit.
However, by-catch has significant importance to the country in terms of human consumption Mgawe, Therefore, it is important to find out how by-catch may be utilized efficiently to cover the cost incurred during fishing and contribute to income generation in fishing communities.
This study makes comparative advantages of prices over value addition to low value fish by-catch. The scope examined possible useful products of by-catch which would be an alternative source of income for small-scale fishers. The study identified preferable products for high economic gain by price comparison of various processed products 2. The specific objectives included: x x Quantify the by-catch composition obtained from prawn fishing vessels x Investigate distribution channels of by-catch from the landing site Make a comparison of market prices between fish sold fresh without any processing with specialty products.
About 30 sampling trips were conducted twice a month during full and new moon from March to February The fish caught during fishing trips were sorted out into prawns, small and medium size clupeids, high value fin fish such as tuna and tuna like species, and other high value fish such as squid, sharks and rays.
After sorting the weight of each group of fish was measured. On landing the prawns were directly sold to wholesale traders and other high value species of fish were sold at retail price. Medium and small size clupeids were then divided into two parts of kg each, one group sold as low priced fish un-processed. The remainder were dried, smoked, or made into specialty products then sold. The study further, determined the price of fish and specialty products with reference to distance.
It focused on tracing fish distribution channels from the coastline landing site to inland markets. This result indicates the relation of small to large fish being negatively skewed with average weight of g that means most of fish caught were within this weight.
Results indicate major species of big fish were sharks, rays, emperors, groupers and mackerels dominating the catch by over 95 percent of big fish composition, while the prawns were dominated by white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus - over 67 percent.
Jiddawi identified species of fish being utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category, including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish.
In this study it was found that some of these coral reef species are being caught along with shrimps in the trawl nets. By-catch over 75 percent making a ratio of is relatively high in prawn trawling; such by-catch requires a clear study on how such catch can be utilized to yield maximum profits that would cover the costs incurred for conducting fishing operations.
In spite of many fishing companies wishing to discard by-catch at sea to reduce cost, the need to utilize it remains paramount as far as food security is concerned.
Results generally indicate that processed products have competitive prices to un-processed fresh fish as shown in the Table 1 below. Shark Papa 1, - 6, 1, Scomberomorus spp. Mackerels Vibua 1, - 6, 5, Arius africanus Sea Catfish Hongwe 1, - 4, Anguilla mossambica African longfin Mkunga 1, - - 1, eel Hydrocynus vittatus Tiger fish Kange 1, - 3, 2, Sardina spp.
Sardines Salidini - 4, 3, Taeniura spp. Rays Taa 1, - 6, 1, Octopus spp. Octopus Pweza 6, - - 4, Metanephrops spp. Lobster Kamba koche 15, - - - Nephropsis spp. Source: Field data. This study also focused on tracing fish distribution channels from the coastline landing site to inland markets. It was found that fish caught from both artisanal and industrial fisheries are either exported or consumed within the country. Tracing the distribution of fish in relation to distance from the coast was a major area of this study.
Only low value species such as groupers, jacks and clupeids are sold in the country, at prices equal to those of artisanal products. It was established that over 90 percent of most high value species including prawns, squid, octopus and crabs from artisanal fish species are sold within the country, only 10 percent, mainly including species such as prawns, octopus, lobsters, crabs and squids are exported.
Moreover, it was also observed that about 60 percent of fish from artisanal fishers are transported to Dar es Salaam Ferry market where they get relatively high prices due to high demand caused by rapid population growth of the city.
The remaining 40 percent were transported locally with no formal distribution channels. The distance fish could go was mainly limited by the handling techniques used, icing of fish being the main method employed.
Processed products were found as far as km from the coast, being distributed by small traders, while fresh fish from the same traders were limited to within a short distance of about km from the coastline.
Fresh fish encountered beyond km were mainly transported using insulated specialized vans, owned by commercial fish dealers. Traditional fish processing such as sun drying, salting and smoking are still popular in fishing villages and among Tanzanian consumers and most of products from artisanal fishers are processed using these techniques. Sardines are mostly sun dried while the table size bony fish are smoked and cartilaginous fish such as rays and sharks are salt dried.
Over 86 percent of products of artisanal fishers encountered at the market were dried and smoked fish. Common fish species of commercial important are shown in the Table above. Various common traditional processing methods encountered during field work include but are not limited to drying, smoking, salting, frying and fermenting or different combinations of these, with sun-drying being widely applied in processing of small clupeids and smoking for large clupeids.
For instance, during the new moon when small clupeid catches were high fishers preferred processing their catch so as they to access distant markets where over 50 percent of catch was processed. The number was as low as around 10 percent during full-moon, when most of the small scale purse seine fleet is not operating.
It was apparent that in this period the by-catch caught by industrial prawn trawlers had sufficient market Saltwater - Various - Ministry Of Sound: Chilled 1991-2010 (CD) justify fishing and transportation costs. Therefore, the need to process by-catch as a means of adding value to earn more income had no sense during full-moon. The price offered at the market was as high as three times the normal market price, which was competitive enough to cover fishing costs.
However, customer preferences remained the controlling factor for pricing on different fish species and products. Customer preferences on specialty products made out of by-catch were rated. Generally, most coastal communities preferred fresh fish to processed fish.
Preference of processed fish products increased with increasing distance from the coast, probably because in most cases they eat more processed than fresh fish. Field observations indicated over 40 percent of fish products encountered at the markets were smoked fish, 52 percent sun dried small clupeids, 5 percent fresh fish and 3 percent other fish products. This study observed high prices for processed fish in urban areas compared to low prices in rural areas along the coastline and vice versa away from the coast.
Such observations are common in African countries. Njai observed that the price of smoked fish in rural markets was higher than in urban markets in Gambia.
Such prices are determined by transport and other costs incurred by the trader during distribution from the processing site to the marketing points in the rural areas. Observations from the field indicated no proper packing materials were used and this resulted in post harvest loss and low prices for locally packed products. With the exception of fresh products, which are commonly carried in ice boxes, other products were packed in sacks of 20 kg to kg, special baskets locally known as matenga made out of bamboo trees and other locally made materials.
Packaging problems are found to be related to market prices and quality of products, thus poor packaging materials are associated with low prices and high loss of processed products. From this study it could be concluded that by-catch utilization can be maximized by employing various processing techniques to make specialty products that meet market demand. Low priced fish that dominate the prawn fishery can easily be converted into high value fish by making specialty products.
Improvement would include increased awareness through training for fishermen and processors on improved handling techniques that can result in high quality fish. Furthermore, the study recommends Tanzania encourage by-catch utilization by making laws prohibiting discarding at sea and Saltwater - Various - Ministry Of Sound: Chilled 1991-2010 (CD) fish handling and processing units along the coast at specified landing sites. This would include improving market distribution systems. Further research on finding possibilities for exporting specialty products to European markets is recommended; currently specialty products from artisanal fishing industry are sold within great lakes countries.
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