Aïcha (Wolof Version)

Great Britain and its colonies continued to use March 25 untilwhen they finally adopted the Gregorian calendar the fiscal year in the UK continues to begin on 6 April, initially identical to 25 March in the former Julian calendar. Many other cultures and religions still celebrate the beginning of the New Year in March. Ancient Roman observances celebrated in March include Agonium Martialecelebrated on March 1, March 14, and March 17, Matronaliacelebrated on March 1, Junonaliacelebrated on March 7, Equirriacelebrated on March 14, Mamuraliacelebrated on either March 14 or March 15, Hilaria on March 15 and then through March Aïcha (Wolof Version), Argeicelebrated on March 16—17, Liberalia and Bacchanaliacelebrated March 17, Quinquatriacelebrated March 19—23, and Tubilustriumcelebrated March These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

In Finnish, the month is called maaliskuuwhich is believed to originate from maallinen kuuduring March, earth finally becomes visible under the snow other etymological theories have however been put forward. Historical names for March include the Saxon Lentmonatnamed after the March equinox and gradual lengthening of days, and the eventual namesake of Lent. Other names were used too, for example brezen and breznik"the month of birches". All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Third month in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Christian Raimond Dupont surrendered and Colonel Raynal's troops crossed back into French Somaliland on 26 Decembercompleting its liberation.

The official handover took place at p. InDjibouti received the status of overseas territory. An elected territorial assembly was created then, ina government council charged, under the chairmanship of the head of the territorywith Aïcha (Wolof Version) management of local affairs.

At the same time, fiscal, customs and monetary measures are put in place to promote the development of the deep-water port, to finally compete with Aden.

Port facilities are expanding considerably and can afford to accommodate 2, ships per year. Djibouti becomes a free port and abandons the free zone. In Augustan official visit to the territory by then French PresidentGeneral Charles de Gaullewas also met with demonstrations and rioting. Initial results supported a continued but looser relationship with France. However, the referendum was again marred by reports of vote rigging on the part of the French authorities, voters rejected independence by a point margin.

Announcement of the plebiscite results sparked civil unrest, including several deaths. The population of Djibouti was growing rapidly, from officially about 17, inhabitants in Inthe plan of Djibouti consisted of four main features: a hierarchical system of streets laid out in a grid, large blocks consisting of small-scale domestic dwellings, the organization of these blocks around central open spaces, and the concentration of cultural institutions to form a civic center.

It then became the headquarters of the succeeding French Territory of the Afars and Issas. When Djibouti declared Independence on 27 Junethe population of Djibouti was over , the city has served as the administrative and commercial capital of the Republic of Djibouti.

Djibouti is the capital and largest settlement in Djiboutisituated in the Horn of Africa. The city is located in eastern Djibouti, approximately 21 kilometres 13 miles northwest of the Somaliland border.

It is a seaport with the only sheltered harbour on the western side of the Gulf of Tadjoura. The wadi of Ambouli, flows through the city, separating the older parts of the city from the Balbala district. The landscape around the city, along with Djibouti's coastal lowlands, is either desert or semi-desert.

The city's sandy beaches include Siesta Beach and Heron Beach. Djibouti is rich in plant species partly because of its diversity of habitats, including beaches, mangroves and semi-arid lands. The most prevalent plant communities are the African foxtail grassUrochondraPanicum turgidum and Acacia tortilis.

The geological instability has produced numerous faultswhich cause earthquakes but most of them are too small to be felt. Balbala suburb has been officially part of the city sinceand is divided into 18 districts. It is characterised by very hot rainless summers and a very warm, slightly wetter winter season. Most of the annual precipitation falls between October and May.

The city sees on average There are two seasons: a hot dry season from May to October and a cooler season with more precipitation from November to April winter. The rainfall on the coast usually occurs between November to March, whereas further inland it falls between April to October. Sunshine is abundant in the city, averaging eight to ten hours a day year-round.

It is lowest during the rainy period, when there is some coastal fog and greater cloud coverage as warm air passes over the cool sea surface. However, precipitation is highly variable and long periods without any rainfall occur throughout the year. Unusual episodes of heavy rain sometimes occur, with a maximal millimetres 8. This climate zone has summers that reach a maximum temperature of There are barely any days in the year without sunshine, and even during the winter there are many clear days.

Djibouti is a multi-ethnic town. It has a population of aroundresidents Djiboutians inmaking it by far the largest settlement in the country. The city's urban landscape is shaped by many communities. The ethnic make-up of Djibouti changed in s, when significant numbers of Ethiopians and Somali immigrants arrived in the city, with Djibouti nicknamed the "French Hong Kong in the Red Sea" due to its cosmopolitan urbanism. The majority of local residents speak Somalispeakers or Afarspeakers as a first language, which are the mother tongues of the Somali and Afar ethnic groups, respectively.

Both languages belong to the larger Afroasiatic family. Arabic is of social, cultural and religious importance. In formal settings, it consists of Modern Standard Arabic. Colloquially, about 40, local residents speak the Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic dialect, also known as Southern Yemeni Arabic due to Yemeni immigrants.

French was inherited from the colonial period and is the primary language of instruction. About 14, Djiboutians speak it as a first language. Immigrant languages include Omani Arabic 38, speakers and Amharic 1, speakers. Djibouti's population is predominantly Muslim. Among the places of worshipthey are predominantly Muslim mosques. Djibouti is home to different architectural styles that represent various periods in its history.

The old section is filled with bazaars and souks nestled along narrow streets. Djibouti has wide streets, restaurants, Plaza town squares and cafes while many of the boulevards are lined with trees. It is serves as both a center for commerce and entertainment, as well as a residential area. To accommodate the growing middle class, many new apartments and housing developments are being constructed in and around the city.

A few of the building fronts have been renovated and date back to the 19th century. The Place of 27 June in the city center is also distinguished by its Moorish -inspired arches. Due to its numerous exotic edifices and structures, the city has also been likened to a European settlement. Djibouti has the distinction of being both a city and an administrative province. The Djibouti Region is one of the six regions of Djibouti.

The Djibouti Region is the smallest province in the country, but also the region with the highest population of people. Djibouti Region occupies an area of square kilometres 77 square miles. It is the smallest region in Djibouti, and contains the national capital, Djibouti. Djibouti has been the capital of Djibouti since independence in Due to its maritime location, it was the logical choice as the young republic's administrative center.

Following independence, Djibouti continued with its status as the country's political and cultural hub. It is the seat of the government and home to all the national institutions: the government house, the parliamentministries, the presidential palace, the vice-presidential residence, the constitutional court, judicial bodies and other public organizations. The commune of Ras-Dika whose territory corresponds to the 6th arrondissement. The commune of Boulaos regroups the 1st, 2nd and 3rd arrondissements.

The town of Balbala includes the 4th and 5th arrondissements. Released in France as Betece Live! RFI Musique. March Archived from the original on Retrieved Senegal enjoys mostly cordial relations with its neighbors.

In spite of clear progress on other issues with Mauritania border security, resource management, economic integration, etc. The Armed Forces of Senegal consist of about 17, personnel in the army, air forcenavy, and gendarmerie. The Senegalese military receives most of its training, equipment, and support from France and the United States, and to a lesser extent Germany.

Military noninterference in political affairs has contributed to Senegal's stability since independence. Senegal has participated in many international and regional peacekeeping missions.

Senegal is a secular state, as defined in its Constitution. OFNAC has Aïcha (Wolof Version) power of self-referral own initiative investigation. OFNAC is composed of twelve members appointed by decree. Homosexuality is illegal in Senegal. Senegal is located on the west of the African continent. Senegal is externally bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south; internally it almost completely surrounds The Gambianamely on the north, east and south, except for Gambia's short Atlantic coastline.

The Senegalese landscape consists mainly of the rolling sandy plains of the western Sahel which rise to foothills in the southeast. Here is also found Senegal's highest point, an otherwise unnamed feature 2. The capital Dakar lies on the Cap-Vert peninsula, the westernmost point of continental Africa.

The Cape Verde islands lie some kilometres mi off the Senegalese coast, but Cap-Vert "Cape Green" is a maritime placemark, set at the foot of "Les Mammelles", a metre ft cliff resting at one end of the Cap-Vert peninsula onto which is settled Senegal's capital Dakar, and 1 kilometre 0.

Senegal contains four terrestrial ecoregions: Guinean forest-savanna mosaicSahelian Acacia savannaWest Sudanian savannaand Guinean mangroves. Senegal has a tropical climate with pleasant heat throughout the year with well-defined dry and humid seasons that result from northeast winter winds and southwest summer winds. The dry season December to April is dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind. The northernmost part of the country has a near hot desert climatethe central part has a hot semi-arid climate and the southernmost part has a tropical wet and dry climate.

Senegal is mainly a sunny and dry country. Climate change in Senegal will have wide reaching impacts on many aspects of life in Senegal. Climate change will cause an increase in average temperatures over west Africa by between 1. The economy of Senegal is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fishing and agriculture, which are the main sources of employment in rural areas, despite abundant natural resources in iron, zircon, gas, gold, phosphates, and numerous oil discoveries recently.

Senegal's economy gains most of its foreign exchange from fishphosphatesgroundnutstourismand services. As one of the dominant parts of the economy, the agricultural sector of Senegal is highly vulnerable to environmental conditions, such as variations in rainfall and climate changeand changes in world commodity prices.

The former capital of French West Africais also home to banks and other institutions which serve all of Francophone West Africa, and is a hub for shipping and transport in the region. Senegal also has one of the best developed tourist industries in Africa. Senegal's economy depends on foreign assistance. It is a member of the World Trade Organization. The main industries include food processingminingcement, artificial fertilizerchemicalstextilesrefining imported petroleum, and tourism. Exports include fish, chemicals, cotton, fabrics, groundnutsand calcium phosphate.

The principal foreign market is India with Senegal achieved full Internet connectivity increating a mini-boom in information technology-based services. Private activity now accounts for 82 percent of its GDP. On the negative side, Senegal faces deep-seated urban problems of chronic high unemployment, socioeconomic disparityjuvenile delinquencyand drug addiction. Senegal is a major recipient of international development assistance. Over 3, Peace Corps Volunteers have served in Senegal since Agriculture is one of the dominant parts of Senegal's economydespite the fact that Senegal lies within the drought-prone Sahel region.

As only about 5 percent of the land is irrigated [ citation needed ]Senegal continues to rely on rain-fed agriculture. Agriculture occupies about 75 percent of the workforce. Despite a relatively wide variety of agricultural production, the majority of farmers produce for subsistence needs. Milletricecornand sorghum are the primary food crops grown in Senegal. Production is subject to drought and threats of pests such as locustsbirds, fruit fliesand white flies. Senegal is a net food importer, particularly for rice, which represents almost 75 percent of cereal imports.

Peanutssugarcaneand cotton are important cash cropsand a wide variety of fruits and vegetables are grown for local and export markets. Green beansindustrial tomatocherry tomatomelonand mango are Senegal's main vegetable cash crops. The Casamance region, isolated from the rest of Senegal by Gambiais an important agriculture producing area, but without the infrastructure or transportation links to improve its capacity. Senegal has a nautical-mile 22 km; 14 mi exclusive fishing zone that has been regularly breached in recent years as of [update].

It has been estimated that the country's fishermen losetonnes of fish each year to illegal fishing. The Senegalese government have tried to control the illegal fishing which is conducted by fishing trawlerssome of which are registered in RussiaMauritaniaBelize and Ukraine.

In Januarya Russian trawler, Oleg Naydenovwas seized by Senegalese authorities close to the maritime border with Guinea-Bissau.

As of April [update]the energy sector in Senegal has an installed capacity of megawatts MW. Most of the energy production is from fossil fuelsmostly diesel and gas of Aïcha (Wolof Version). Despite increases in production in the s, the economy is frequently hindered by energy shortages compared to demand. Senegal has a population of around However, Senegalese feminists have been critical of the government's lack of action in enforcing the protocols, conventions and other texts that have been signed as a means of protecting women's rights.

Senegal has a wide variety of ethnic groups and, as in most West African countries, several languages are widely spoken. See also Aïcha (Wolof Version) Bedick ethnic group. About 50, Europeans mostly French and Lebanese [77] as well as smaller numbers of Mauritanians and Moroccans [ citation needed ] reside in Senegal, mainly in the cities and some retirees who reside in the resort towns around Mbour. The majority of Lebanese work in commerce. The country experienced a wave of immigration from France in the decades between World War II and Senegalese independence; most of these French people purchased homes in Dakar or other major urban centers.

According to the World Refugee Surveypublished by the U. Committee for Refugees and ImmigrantsSenegal has a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 23, in The majority of this population 20, is from Mauritania.

Refugees live in N'dioum, Dodel, and small settlements along the Senegal River valley. French is the official languagespoken at least by all those who enjoyed several years in the educational system that is of French origin Koranic schools are even more popular, but Arabic is less widely spoken outside of the context of recitation. During the 15th century, many European territories started to engage in trade in Senegal. In the 19th century, France increased its colonial influence in Senegal and thus the number of French-speaking people multiplied continuously.

French was ratified as the official language of Senegal in when the country achieved independence. Most people also speak their own ethnic language while, especially in Dakar, Wolof is the lingua franca. The Serer language is widely spoken by both Serers and non-Serers including President Sall, whose wife is Serer ; so are the Cangin languageswhose speakers are ethnically Serers. Jola languages are widely spoken in the Casamance. Overall Senegal is home to around 39 distinct languages.

English is taught as a foreign language in secondary schools and many graduate school programs, and it is the only subject matter that has a special office in the Ministry of Education. English is widely used by the scientific community and in business, including by the Modou-Modou illiterate, self-taught businessmen.

Portuguese Creolelocally known as Portuguese, is a prominent minority language in Ziguinchorregional capital of the Casamancespoken by local Portuguese creoles and immigrants from Guinea-Bissau. It is currently available in most of Senegal and in higher education.

It is especially prevalent in Casamance as it relates with the local cultural identity. While French is the sole official language, a rising Senegalese linguistic nationalist movement supports the integration of Wolof, the common vernacular language of the country, into the national constitution.

Dakar, the capital, is by far the largest city in Senegal, with over two million residents. Religion in Senegal [91].

Senegal is a secular state, [46] although Islam is the predominant religion in the country, practiced by One percent has animist beliefs, particularly in the southeastern region of the country. The Halpulaar Pulaar -speakerscomposed of Fula peoplea widespread group found along the Sahel from Chad to Senegal, and Toucouleursrepresent Many of the Toucouleursor sedentary Halpulaar of the Senegal River Valley in the north, converted to Islam around a millennium ago and later contributed to Islam's propagation throughout Senegal.

Success was gained among the Wolofs, but repulsed by the Serers. Most communities south of the Senegal River Valley, however, were not thoroughly Islamized. The Serer people stood out as one of this group, who spent over one thousand years resisting Islamization see Serer history. Although many Serers are Christians or Muslim, their conversion to Islam in particular is very recent, who converted on their own free will rather than by force, although force had been tried centuries earlier unsuccessfully see the Battle of Fandane-Thiouthioune.

In Murid communities, which place more emphasis on the work ethic than on literary Quranic studies, the term daara often applies to work groups devoted to working for a religious leader. Today, most Senegalese children study at daara s for several years, memorizing as much of the Qur'an as they can.

Some of them continue their religious studies at councils majlis or at the growing number of private Arabic schools and publicly funded Franco-Arabic schools. Small Aïcha (Wolof Version) communities are mainly found in coastal Serer, JolaMankanya and Balant populations, and in eastern Senegal among the Bassari and Coniagui.

The Protestant churches are mainly attended by immigrants but during the second half of the 20th century Protestant churches led by Senegalese leaders from different ethnic groups have evolved. In Dakar Catholic and Protestant rites are practiced by the Lebanese, Cape Verdean, European, and American immigrant populations, and among certain Africans of other countries as well as by the Senegalese themselves.

Serer religion encompasses a belief in a supreme deity called Roog Koox among the CanginSerer cosmogonycosmology and divination ceremonies such as the annual Xooy or Khoy ceremony presided over by the Serer Saltigues high priests and priestesses. The Boukout is one of the Jola's religious ceremonies.

There are a small number of members of the Bani Israel tribe in the Senegalese bush that claim Jewish ancestry, though this is disputed. Life expectancy at birth was estimated to be Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution adopted in January guarantee access to education for all children.

Illiteracy is high, particularly among women. Public expenditure on education was 5. Senegal was ranked nd in the Global Innovation Index indown from 96th in

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