Such explanatory accounts, however, do not justify the loyalties we form or may be inclined to form. Yet, because loyalties privilege their objects, the provision of a justification is important.
For some writers, the distinction between chosen and unchosen loyalties is critical. Simon Keller, for example, considers that our general unwillingness to question unchosen loyalties exhibits the lack of integrity often referred to as bad faith. Once we have such loyalties—he focuses on patriotic loyalties—we are resistant to their scrutiny and self-defensively discount challenges to them Keller, ; There may be some truth to the view that we are more likely to show bad faith as far as our unchosen loyalties are concerned, but it may be difficult Unchosen One offer that as a general comment on unchosen loyalties.
There may be no more reason not Unchosen One call our patriotism into question when we see how our country is behaving than there is not to call a friendship into question when we see how our friend is behaving.
It may be psychologically harder and a moral hazard associated with loyaltiesbut that does not sustain a general judgment about unchosen loyalties. Some have treated arguments for associational loyalty as though they were cut from the same cloth as general arguments for associational obligations. But whatever the merits of such arguments as grounds for general institutional obligations, they do not provide grounds for the particularistic obligations that we connect with loyalty.
They do not capture the particularity of such obligations. Even consent-based arguments are insufficiently particularistic. Leaving aside the possibility that our basic political or parental or other associational obligations may also include an obligation to be loyal, we may usually fulfil what we take those obligations to be without any sense of loyalty to their objects.
Obligations of loyalty presuppose an associational identification that more general institutional or membership obligations do not. But as valuable as loyalty may be for associational recuperation, it is not clear that we can link its justification only to its recuperative potential.
For even within a generally consequentialist framework loyalty may play a more positive role. In such a case the loyalty expresses a desire to further institutional interests rather than restore them. The donation is seen as an expression of loyalty because it expresses a commitment to the institution in the face of presumably more narrowly self-serving alternatives available to the donor. An outside philanthropist might, however, choose to donate the same amount, though not out of loyalty to the institution.
More critically, if loyalty is viewed simply in terms of the goods that the associative object is able to secure or produce, the intrinsic value that the association has come to have for the loyal person is overlooked, along with the sense of identification that it expresses.
It is out of that sense of identification that loyalty arises. We return to this in c. But obligations of gratitude are not ipso facto obligations of loyalty: the brutalized Jew who was rescued by the Good Samaritan may have had a debt of gratitude but he had no debt of loyalty Luke — Loyalty, moreover, may be owed where there is no reason for gratitude: as may be the case between friends.
Obligations of gratitude are recompensive, whereas obligations of loyalty are associative. A broad justification such as this leaves unstated what associations might be constitutive of human flourishing.
Perhaps there is no definitive list. But most would include friendships, familial relationships, and some of the social institutions that foster, sustain, and secure the social life in which we engage as part of our flourishing. To the extent that we accept that engagement with or in a particular form of association or relation is constitutive of our flourishing, to that extent we will consider loyalty to it to be justified—even required. The arguments that justify loyalty do not ipso facto justify absolute loyalty, though they do not rule out the possibility that, for example, a person might legitimately be willing, out of loyalty, to lay down his life for another.
That is often the case in wartime and may also be true of some friendships. The strength of the claims of loyalty will depend on the importance of the association to the person who has the association and, of course, on the legitimacy of the association in question. Not only may some associative relations be illegitimate, but the expectations of one association may come into conflict with those of another: we may have conflicts of loyalty.
If the conflict is resolved by giving one loyalty precedence over another, it does not necessarily follow that loyalty to the one is disloyalty to the other. Sometimes such priorities will be straightforward; at other times not. Prioritization may, nevertheless, call for an apology and compensation in respect of the disappointed party. Even if we decide unwisely as did Robert E. Leeour decision will not ipso facto count as disloyalty.
Disloyalty is more often associated with the self-serving or hypocritical abandonment Unchosen One loyalty. Royce, who sometimes appears absolutist about loyalty, seeks to avoid the problems of absolutism in two ways. It has already been noted that it is not part of loyalty to be complaisant or servile, though loyalty may be corrupted into such.
In any plausible account of loyalty as a virtue there must be openness to corrective criticism on the part of both the subject and object of loyalty. Not any opposition is permissible. A loyal opponent is not just an opponent, but one who remains loyal.
What that entails is that the opposition stays within bounds that are compatible with the well-being or best interests or flourishing of the object of loyalty. Generally speaking, a loyal opposition will not advocate the equivalent of rebellion or revolution for the latter would jeopardize the object of loyalty and perhaps lead to its replacement by an alternative object of loyalty.
It is the commitment to opposition within what are judged to be the prevailing structures that has led some radical critics of loyalty e. It is conservative, though in a positive sense of that word: it involves a commitment to securing or preserving the interests of an associational object, an object that is, or has come to be, valued for its own sake whatever else it may be valued for.
Nevertheless, the existence of a loyal opposition need not preclude the possibility that a more radical opposition might and indeed should subsequently be mounted. In such cases it could be argued that the object of loyalty was no longer worthy of it or had forfeited its claim to it. It is only if we mistakenly or misguidedly think of loyalty as making an absolute claim on us that Unchosen One derogatory charge of conservatism against a loyal opposition will have traction.
For heuristic purposes, we can probably distinguish a double focus for loyalty—either a type of association such as a state or a particular instantiation of the type such as the United States.
Strictly, loyalty will be only to the latter, though it assists in understanding the limits of loyalty if we make the distinction. If the type of institution is thought to be critical to human flourishing, then loyalty to it will be expected. But if the institution is of relatively minor significance, the development of instantiations of it, along with loyalty to them, will be relatively unimportant though not necessarily to those who develop such loyalties.
Whether, for example, patriotism that is, patriotic loyalty is justified will depend in part on the importance to be accorded to a state or country. If we are social contractarians, then the state broadly conceived offers a significant solution to some of the problems of human association as well as an arena for social identification. We might think that both a state and loyalty to it are important. But it was something that stayed with me because I knew then when I got of age I was going to leave there.
I just wanted to leave. I had to be crazy. Now, the first place I remember being is in Detroit. A man picked me up. He was saying that he could get me a job and a place to stay and all this.
I asked him, does it snow there? And he said yes. But I hitchhiked from there to Denver, Colorado. And I was in this Greyhound bus station, cause they had two counters, white and Black. So I could get something to eat. And I heard somebody say, Los Angeles, California. Never heard of Los Angeles before. A Cleaners. I got all the information. And that was me. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Negative conscious and emotional reaction to personal past acts and behaviours.
For other uses, see Regret disambiguation. PMC PMID A theory of regret regulation 1. J Consum Psychol. S2CID Psychological Science. CiteSeerX ISSN Unchosen One bias, naturalness bias, and inf luenza vaccination". Med Decis Making. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. Health Expectations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Medical Decision Making. Retrieved 31 January In her book The Top Five Regrets of the DyingBonnie [sic] Ware, a palliative nurse, compiled the regrets most often expressed by patients nearing the ends of their lives Ware, Although anecdotal, her observations are in line Unchosen One our hypothesis.
He meets the wizard behind the curtain and learns about himself. They were talented. They were infinitely wealthy children. You think, I want to be on TV, I want to be in movies. I was born in Long Beach, moving often, one-room studio apartments. And dad was on the weekends, but my dad was the one that I usually saw most movies with. Standing in those lines of fans, seeing the love, the passion, that was magical. And I love that moment Luke is looking out over the horizon, staring at the twin suns, standing on the precipice.
Growing up, I felt — it kind of felt like that. He played Rusty, the little terror of Tanner-town. Like, I saw the light go on. And I just — nothing. Casting rooms were a part of my childhood — get out of school, get in the car, go to auditions. Mom played coach. Well, maybe try saying it like this, try saying it like this. It was pretty hard to find work as a single mom who had to take me back and forth from Hollywood, but she was really supportive of me as an actor.
I remember being on set. Because constituted of parental flesh, children belong to parents. There is hardly a better ground for belonging in some sense. But as persons with incipient rational natures, children cannot belong as, say, property does. But genealogy is not the only basis for parental authority. Take feeding as an example. At first, the child eats when its mother does. The feeding continues postpartum with nursing, then via spoon, then with coaxing or a stern look, and eventually, mother or father will just announce dinner, and the youngster does the rest.
And so on with countless other acts of care, from keeping the child clean to socializing her with siblings, peers, and adults. If these acts of parental care, and the million deliberations before them, are not forthcoming, the child will grow up rude, violent, scared, sad. The regularity of care and resultant trust give the child a claim on these parents.
The sacrifices made and knowledge gained from the ordeal of caring for the child, which begins in the womb and continues outside it, position parents better than anyone to care for this particular child.
Obviously, the claims of parents are not absolute. Incompetent parents deserve input and direction from concerned family, friends, and clergy.
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